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India that is Bharat (Who was the son of Dushyant. ) The name has been derived from the Bharat tribe.  The term India is derived from Sindhu (a River).  The Persians pronounces ‘S’ as ‘H’ and thus the called Sindhu as Hindu.

Geographical Set Up: India takes its standard time from the meridian of 82 30 E, which is 5 ½  hours ahead of Greenwich Mean time ( 0 longitude).Pakistan time is 5 hours ahead of GMT and Bangladesh time is 6 hours ahead  of GMT.


Geographical India has a well defined frontiers.

People from outside could get into India were the Khyber pass, near Safed Koh,  in the Hindu Kush  mountains  and the Bolan pass between the northwest that separated the Indian realm from Afghanistan.

Due to recurring floods caused by tectonic uplifting of the lower Sind valley, overuse of the natural resources particularly land and forests, and probably the heavy pressure of other tribes coming from Central Asia.

Decline appears around 1600 – 1500 BC.

By 1000 BC, the Aryan influence reached the Peninsular south to unify the whole of geographical India into a single cultural entity.

The Aryan resolved uneven socio-cultural development by introducing four Varnas based on occupations namely the Brahmanas to study, teach and pray; the Kshatriyas to protect the people from enemies and to maintain peace; the Vaishyas to take care of the economy; and the Sudras to provide the labour force.

Three regional concentrations, which can be easily identified, are : 1) the south, which had long maritime links with people across the sea; 2) the northwest, which provided passage for the people of central and west asia across the Himalayan mountains; and 3) the northeast, whose passes provided immigration of mongoloid people into hills and leys of the region.


The area of the arable land india is second only to the USA. The main land extends from 8. 4’ north to 36.6’ north latitude and 68.7’ east to 97.25’ east longitude for a distance of 3,214 km from south to north and 2,933 km from west to east . the tropic of cancer divides it into almost two halves .pakistan, afganistan,china, nepal, Bhutan,Myanmar,and Bangladesh form components of india’s land frontier. The long international boundary is shared in the east with Bangladesh (4096 km), on the north with china (3917km), and afganistan ( 80 km) and on the northwest with Pakistan (3310km) . so extensive is india that when the sun rises  in Arunachal Pradesh, it is still dark in Porbandar, Kathiawar coast (Gujarat) in the west, where Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation. . India’s territorial limit further extends towards the sea upto 12 nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast-Indian subcontinent-includes the countries-Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and India-Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Manner and Palk Strait.

Significance of Location: Barring the plateau of Baluchistan (which form part of Pakistan), the two great ranges of Sulaiman and Kirthar cut it off from the west. Along the north, the great mountain wall formed by the Hindukush, Karakoram and the Himalayas, which is difficult to cross, cuts it off from the rest of the continent. Similarly, the southward of-shoots of the Eastern Himalayas separate it from Russia. The tropical monsoon climate of India, which ensures a fair supply of moisture and forms the basis of farming in India, is also a result of its location in the southern part of Asia.

Since the opening of Suez Canal (1867) India’s distance from Europe has been reduced by 7,000km. It thus bridges the space between the highly industrialized nation of the west and the semi-arid, and south-western Asia and the most fertile and populated regions in the south-east and far-east countries.


The standard geological eras are the Pre-Cambrian (over 570 million years old), the Paleozoic (245-570 million years old), the Mesozoic (66-245 million years old) and the Cenozoic(66 million years old to the present).

The Indian geological eras are the Archean, the Puraha, the Dravidian and the Aryan.  The Pre-Cambrians do not contain fossils of plants and animals.  The Paleozoic have the fossils ofvery early lives, the Mesozoic have middle lives and the Cenozoic recent lives.  

GEOLOGICAL HISTORY The Peninsula contains mostly residual mountains. The Himalayas, on the other hand, are the tectonic mountains. Important Indian rock formations are the Archean system, Dharwar system, Cuddapah system, Vindhyan system, Gondwana system, Deccan Traps, Tertiary system and Quaternary formations




AREA KM (Sq) (appro)



Northern mountains




Great Plains




Thar Desert




Central Highlands




Peninsular Plateaus




Coastal Plains







The Trans Himalayas or Tibetan Himalayas: Brahmaputra rivers divide Himalayas intotree sections: the main Himalayas, the northwest Himalayas and the southeast Himalayas.  The main Himalayas running from the Pamir Plateau in the northwest to Arunachal Pradesh in the southeast are the youngest mountains in the world.  The highest peak of the word, the Mount Everst(8,884m, named after Sir George Everst).  There are about 140 peaks  in the Himalayas whose elevation is more than the Mount Blanc (4,810m),the highest peak of the Alps. The three mountain ranges: the Himadri in the north(the greater Himalayas)the Himachal in the  middle(the lesser Himalayas) and the Siwalik(the Outer Himalayas),facing thr palins of India.  The Himadri is of grat elevations (6,000m) which remains covered with everlasting snows.  The Siwalik have some flat-floored structural valleys knowns as duns.  Dehradun is well-known. Between the Himadri and the Himachal are some broad synclincal valleys. The Karakoram Himalayas contain India’s four largest glaciers, namely Siachen (75km), Baltoro(58km) Biafo(59km), and Hispar(62Km)

K2 is the highest mountain peak.  Ladakh with an average elevation of 5300m is the highest plateau of India.

The hills of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur,Assam,mizoram and Tripura are parts  of the southeast Himalayas.  These are collectively known aas the Purvachal Eastern ranges.  There are a large number of passes in the Himalayas. Some of them are the Jelepla,Nathula,Chola,Zojila,Patkai,Bumdila,Changla,Karakoram,etc.

The largest glaciers are Hispar and Batura (over 57 km long) of Hunza Valley and Biafo and Baltaro (60 km long) of Shigar Valley. The Siachen of Nubra Valley is the longest with a length of over 72 km.

The Purvachal or the Eastern Hills: In the east after crossing the Cihang gorge the Himalayas bend towards south forming a series of hills running through Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and eastern Assam and form the boundary between India and Burma.

Significance of Himalayas: (i) Physical Barriers (ii) Birthplace of Rivers (iii)  Influence on climate (iv) Flora and Fauna (v) Mineral Resources (vi) Other Economic Resources   (vii) Tourist Abode

Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains are still subjected to the interplay of exogenic and endogenic forces, resulting in the development of faults, folds and thrust plains-Average depth of alluvial deposits in these plains ranges from 1, 000-2, 000 m.

NEW NCERT : A. Great Himalayan and the Trans-Himalayan range, the middle Himalayas and –Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Pir Panjal.  The northeastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is a cold desert-Baltoro and Siachen are also found in this region.  The Kashmir Himalayas are also famous for Karewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran a local variety of saffron-Zoji la on the Great Himalayas, Banihal on the Pir Panjal, Photu la on the Zaskar and Khardung La on the Ladakh range-Dal and Wular and salt water lakes such as Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri are also in this region-Indus-Jhelum and the Chenab.  The Kashmir and northwestern Himalayas are well-known for their scenic beauty and picturesque landscape-southernmost part of this region consists of longitudinal valleys known as ‘duns’.  Jammu dun and Pathankot dun are important examples

B. Ravi in the west and the Kali (a tributary of Ghaghara) in the east-Indus and the Ganga-All the three ranges of Himalayas are prominent in this section also-Dhaolandhar in Himachal Pradesh-important hill stations such as Dharamshala,

Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani and the cantonment towns and helth resorts such as Shimla, Mussoorie, Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne and Ranikhet, etc.  were developed in this region-Chandigarh-Kalka dun, Nalagarh dun, Dehra Dun-famous ‘Valley of flowers’ is also situated in this region.  The places of pilgrimage such as the Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedaranath, Badrinath-five famous Prayags.

C. Nepal Himalayas in the west and Bhutan Himalayas in the east-fast-flowing rivers such as Tista-kanchenjunga-Lepcha tribes- these along with the Arunachal Himalayas are conspicuous by the absence of the Shiwaliks here, the ‘duar formations’ are important.

D. East of the Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east-Kangutu and Namcha Barwa-Kameng, thesubansiri, the Dihang, the Dibang-Most of these communities practice Jhumming.

E.North to the south direction-north, they are known as Patkai Bum, Naga hills, the Manipur hills and in the south as Mizo or Lushai hills-Jhum cultivation-Barak is an important river in Manipur and Mizoram-Manipur-‘Loktak’lake-surrounded by mountains from all sides-Mizoram-‘Molassis basin’-Most of the rivers in Nagaland form the tributary of the Brahmaputra.



The Great palins are of recent origin,less than two million years old.  They are composed wholly of sediments which were deposited by rivers. Half of the Great palins lies in Utar Pradesh, and half in the states of Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Punjab, and Haryana.  The Great Plains have many depressions. The big depression in Bihar are knowns as Jala near Patna and Tal near Mokamah.  The plains contains a large number of alluvial lakes locally known as the bils.  The rocky hills to the south of the great bend of the Luni(the salt river) are about 1,000m in height. The most low lying part of the desert is the lower Luni valley, less than 20m above sea level. It is fresh (sweet) in the upper course, but salty in the lower part.Lies between the great Himalayas in the North and the plateau of Peninsular India in the south. Nearly 2400 km long around 250-320 km broad, the most extensive plan indeed. It is said that this region was once a vast depression, filled with silt – brought down by the three Himalayas River, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their numerous tributaries. It contains some of the richest soils. The bhangar refers to the upland formed by deposition of older alluvium in the river beds and the Khadar are lowlands formed by deposition of detritus of new alluvium in the river beds.

Bhabar and Terai: Includes those regions where the Himalayas and other hilly regions join the plains. Coarse sand and pebbles are deposited. Bhabar lands are narrower in the east and extensive in the western and north-western hilly. Water converts large areas along the river into swamps known as Terai.

The Western or Rajasthan Plains: are known as Marusthali of Thar and the adjoining Bagar areas to the west of Aravalli. Luni whose water is sweet in the upper reaches and saltish by the time is reaches the sea. The several salt lakes in the region such as the Sambhar, Degana, Kuchaman and Didwana; from which table salt is obtained. In most of the region shifting sand dunes occur.

The Punjab-Haryana Plain: These plains owe their formation to the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi rivers. Many low lying flood plains (called bets) are found here. The Bari Doab between Ravi and Beas rivers, the Bist Doab between the Beas and Sutlej and the Malwa plain are relatively more fertile plain.

The Ganga Plain: The Ganga-Yamuna Doab comprising the Rohilkhand and the Avadh Plain is the tile area that is drained by the tributaries of Ganga.

The North Bengal Plains: the Plains extending from the foot of Eastern Himalayas to the northern limb of Bengal basin cover an area of 23,000km2.

Brahmaputra Plains: This is a low level plain, rarely more than 80km broad, surround by High Mountain on all sides except on the west.

Significance of the Great Plains: Riverine region, Fertile soil, favorable climate, flat surface, constructions of roads, extensive system of irrigation.

The Lost Saraswati River

Several rivers during the recent geological history have changed their course and some have disappeared.  The Saraswati was a mightly river in the Vedic and Pre-Vedic time, but disappeared, probably by the advancing desert.   The Ghaggar is belived to be the present day successor of the Saraswati river.

NCERT NEW: These can be divided into three major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai and the alluvial plains. The alluvial plains can be further divided into the khaddar and the Bhangar-Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope-heavy materials of rocks and boulders, disappear in this zone.  South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, with an approximate width of 10-20 km-most of the streams and rivers re-emerge without having any properly demarcated channel-luxurious growth of natural vegetation-south of Tarai is a belt consisting of old and new alluvia deposits known as the Bhangar and Khadar respectively-states of Haryana and Delhi form a water divide between the Indus and the Ganga rive systems-Brahmaputra river flows from the northeast to the southwest direction-almost 90 southward turn at Dhubri before in enters into Bangladesh.

Central Highlands

Its southern limit is the lift valley of the Narmada.  One of  Madhya Pradesh one-third of Rajasthan and a small part of Uttar Pradesh are included in the highlands. The whole region is forested and is inhabited mostly by the Gonds, Santhals, Oraons and Bhils.  The Aravallis that extend southwestwards from Delhi to very close to Ahmedabad for a distance of about 800 km is the oldest tectonic (fold) mountain of India.  It is composed mainly of hard quartzites.  Guru Shikhar (1,722m) on the Abu hills is the highest peak of the Aravalli range.  The Bundelkhand upland lies between the Yamuna and the Vindhyan scarplands. General elevation of the Central Highlands ranges between 700-1,000m above-Most of the tributaries of the river Yamuna have their origin in the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.  Banas is the only significant tributary of the river Chambal that originates from the Aravlli in the west.

Saline Lakes of Rajasthan

The slat comes from the underlying beds.  The salt is obtained from the leaching of the surroundings rocks.  The salt is transported from the Rann of Kachchh by wind. The lakes are the relics of the receeding sea.

old Aravalli Mountain on the west and the Vindhyas on the south. This region slopes northward to the Ganga plains. The western part of the Central highlands is known as the Malwa Plateau. The Central part has a number of small plateaus like those of Rewa, Baghelkhand and Bundlekhand. The eastern part of the Central Highlands comprises the Chotanagpur plateau.

Peninsular Plateaus. Oldest structure of the Indian subcontinent whose slow and steady movement towards north and north-east has been responsible for creation of the Himalayas and the Northern Plains in place of the Tethys sea of geological time. It is marked of from the Indo-Gangetic plain by the mountain and hill ranges such as the Vindhyas, the satpura, and Mahadeo, Maikal, and Sarguja ranges with the average height is usually divided into two major subdivisions with the Narmada valley as the line of demarcation. The region north of the Narmada valley is known as the Central Highlands and in south of the Narmada valley lies the Deccan Plateau. Peninsular Block-irregular line running from Kachchh along the western flank of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then roughly Parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga delta-The Palkonda range and the Mahendragiri hills-Most of the east flowing rivers form deltas before entering into the Bay of Bengal.

It stretches from the Satpura range in the north to KanyaKumari in the south, for a distance of about 1,500km and from the Sahyadri(the Western Ghats) in the west to the Rajmahal hills in the east, for a distance of 1,400km.  In the south plateau surface exceeds 1,000m in elevation, but in the north it hardly reaches 500m.  Thalghat and Bhorghat are the two important passes.  The Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri have their sources on the Sahyadri and flow into the Bay of Bengal.  South of the Palghat gap, it is known as the southern hills.  The highest peak(2,696m) of Anaimudi is the central point form where three ranges radiate in three directions – the Cardamom hills to the south, the Anaimudi to the north and the Palni to the northeast. The Chhotanagpur plateau,composed of granites and gneisses,forms Jharkhand.  The plateau is drained by the Damodar. The Niligiri, far south in Tamil Nadu, is the meeting place of the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats and the Southern hillsThe Deccan Plateau extends from the vindhyas to the southern tip of the Peninsula. This triangle plateau is at its widest in the north. The Vindhya Range and its eastern extension namely Mahadev hills Kaimuir Hills and Maikal Range from its northern edge. Western Ghats are known by different regional names such as the Sahyadris in Maharastra and Karnataka, the niligris in Tamil Nadu and Annamalai and the Cardamon hill along the Kerala and Tamil nadu border. The elevation of the ghats increases towards the south. The highest peak, Anaimudi (2,695 m) is in Kerala. The most important gap in the Western Ghats is the Palghat gap which links Tamil Nadu with Kerala. The Bhorghat and the Thalghat are other gaps lying in Maharastra state.

NCERT NEW: Rising from the height of 150 m above the river plains up to an elevation of 600-900 m is the irregular triangle known as the Peninsular plateau.  Delhi ridge in the northwest, (extension of Aravallis0, the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west and the Cardamon hills in the south-extension of this is also seen in the northeast, in the form of Shillong and Karbi-Anglong plateau-The Bhima fault needs special mention,  because of its recurrent seismic activities-The northwestern part of the plateau has a complex relief of ravines and gorges.  The ravines of Chambal, behind and Morena are some of the well-known examples-Peninsular plateau can be divided into three broad groups:

(i) The Deccan Plateau   (ii) The central Highlands (iii) The Northeasten Plateau.

The Deccan PlateauBordered by the Western Ghats in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north.  Western chats are locally known by different names such as Sahydri in Maharashtra, Niligiri hills iin Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala-‘Anaimudi’ (2, 695 m), the highest peak of Peninsular plateau located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghatas followed by Dodabetta (2, 637 m) on the Niligiri hills.

. Meghalaya plateau is further sub-divided into three:

(i) The Garo Hills;(ii) The Khasi Hills; (iii) The Janitia Hills, named after the tribal groups inhabiting this region.

. It is a land of undulating topography dotted with longitudinal dunes an barchans.  This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm per year; hence, it has arid climate with low vegetation cover.  it is because of these characteristic features that this also known as Marusthali-Low precipitation and high evaporation makes it a water deficit region.

Eastern Ghats: These hills rise steeply from the Coromandel coastal plain. The Eastern Ghats are well developed in the region between the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers. The Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats converge in the Nilgiri hills. Dodda Betta (2,637 m) is the highest peak in the Nilgiri hills.

Western coastal plains are an example of submerged coastal plain-it is a narrow belt-the Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast in Maharashtra, Goan coast and Malabar coast in Karnataka and Kerala respectively-Malabar coast has go certain distinguishing features in the form of ‘Kayals’(backwaters), which are used for fishing, inland navigation-Every year the famous Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada kayal in Kerala.

Significance of Peninsular Plateau: (i) Geological richness (ii) Sources of Irrigation and hydroelectricity (iii) Agricultural Resources (iv) Forest Resources (v) Rich Fauna

(vi) Cultural Influences.


1. Aravali Range: Aravalis are the world’s oldest fold mountain running in north east to southwest direction from Delhi to Palampur in Gujarat. Gurushikhar is the highest peak situated in Mount Abu. Barr, Piplighat, Dewair and Desuri passes allow movements by roads and railways.

2. Vindhyan Range: It raises as an escarpment flauting the northern edge of the Naramada, Son-trough. The Vindhyas are continued eastward as the Bharner and Kaimur hills. This range acts a s a water divided between Ganga system and river system of South India. The Makal range forms a connecting link between Vindhyan and Satpuras.

3. Satpura Range: It is a series of seven (Sat) mountains running in east-west direction south of vindhyas and in between the Narmada and Tapi. Commencing from Rajpipla hills in the west through the Mahadeo hills it extends to Makal range in the east. Dhupgarh near Panchmarhi on Mahadeo hills is highest peak of Satpuras.

4. Western Ghats (Sahyadris): The western Ghat run in north-south direction from Tapi valley to north of Kanyakumari. Along the Arabian sea-coast for about 1600 Km. these are Block Mountains due to the down warping of the land to the Arabian Sea. Sahyadris form the real water divide of the peninsula. All the important rivers rise from these hills and flow eastward. The Sayadris up to 16 north latitude are mainly composed of basalt. In this portion Kalsubai is the highest peak. South of Goa Sahyadris are composed of granites and Gneisses. In the Nilgiri hills, Eastern Ghats join the Sahyadris to form a mountain knot whose highest point is Doddabetta (2637 m). South of it is Palghat gap connecting Tamil Nadu with Kerala. South of Palghat there is mountain knot comprising Annamalai hills in north. Patni hills in the north-east and the Cardamon hills in the south. Anaimudi (2695 m ) situated in the Annamalai hills is the highest peak of Sahyadri. Kodaikanal hill station is located on the Patni hills. There are 3 important passes in the Sahyadris:

(a) Thalghat (b) Bhorghat (c) Palghat

5. Eastern Ghat: It is a chain of highly broken and detached hills starting from Mahanadi in Orissa to Vaigai in Tamil Nadu. These are part of the very old fold mountains. It is only in the northern part between Mahanadi and Godavari that Eastern Ghats exhibit true mountain character comprising Maliya and Maduguala konda ranges, South of Godawari the broken hill ranges are Nallamalai, Palkonda, and Javadi, Shavroy and Biligiri Rangan hills. Mahendragiri is the tallest peak of eastern Ghat.


1.Bay of Bengal Islands: The Andaman & Nicobar group of islands are separated by 10 Degree channel. These islands have been formed by extension of tertiary mountain chain of Arakan Yoma. The Andaman group of island is divided into 3 major groups’ viz., North Andaman, Middle Andaman and south Andaman, collectively called Great Andamans. Little Andaman is separated from Great Andamans by Duncan passage. The Nicobar group of islands of which Great Nicobar is largest and southern most one. Saddle peak situated in Andaman Islands is the highest peak of Andaman & Nicobar group.

The Dhuliar peak is the highest peak of Nicobar group of islands.

2) Lakshwadeep islands: Coral- More Muslim population and have fringing reefs. They are 25 small island groups. The island’s north is known as Amindivi and spot is Cannonore island. Extreme south is Minicoy islands which is largest.

The Islands are principal groups of islets include the Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labyrinth island-They are separated by a water body which is called the Ten degree channel-Barren island, the only active volcano in India- Saddle peak (North Andaman-728m), Mount Diavolo (Middle Andaman-515m), Mount koyob (South Andaman-460m) and Mount Thuiller (Great Niocobar-642m)-Lakshadweep-there are approximately 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.  Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq. km.-entire group of islands is broadly divided by the Eleventh degree channel.


1. India is the SEVENTH largest country.

After Russia (17,075,000 sq.km.)   Canada (9,976,140 sq.km.)

China (9,597,000 sq.km.)   USA (9,363,169 sq.km.)

Brazil (8,511,965 sq.km.)     Australia (7,682,300 sq.km.)

2. India is nearly twenty times as large as Great Britain.

India accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total surface area of the world.

About 0.57 per cent area of the earth. But it supports 16.7 pre cent population of the world.

3. Indian sub-continent is very often replaced by the term South Asia which includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lank and sometimes even Afghanistan.

4. Total area = 32, 87, 263 Sq Km.   3, 214 Km = North to South

2, 933 Km = West to East

5. Latitudinal extent 8’4 N to 37’6 N; it is 1/3 angular distance between equator and North Pole.

Longitudinal extent 68’7 E to 97’25 E (For mainland); it is 1/12th of the circumference of the equator.

The time difference of sunrise in Saurashtra and Arunachal Pradesh is 2 hours.

82’30 east longitude is used as Indian standard time. It passes near Allahabad (Naini). It is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT.

Southern-most point-Indira point or Pygmalion point.

Indian Ocean is encircled by 46 countries.

India lies in the northern part of the Indian Ocean.

Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separates it from Sri Lanka.

Coastline is 6,100 Km (along main land mass) and 7,516 Km (if Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshdweep are considered.

6. Border Issues/Border Lines

I) Indo Bangladesh: 4,096 Kms; Five Indian states, namely 1) West Bengal (Longest around 2,272 km long),  2) Assam 3) Meghalaya 4) Tripura 5) Mozoram touch the Bangladesh boundary.

7. India – China 3, 917 kms, i.e over one-fourth of the total land border.

Five Indian states, namely 1) Jammu and Kashmir 2) Himachal Pradesh 3) Uttaranchal 4) Sikkim 5) Arunachal Pradesh touch the Chinese boundary.

8. Indo – Pakistan  3,310 kms long and constitutes 21.78% of total border.

9. Indo – Nepal 1752 kms. Boundary and constitutes 11.53 pre cent of total length of border. Five states touch the Nepali borders; they are

1) Uttranchal 2) Uttar Pradesh 3) Bihar 4) West Bengal and 5) Sikkim

10. Indo – Myanmar 1,458 kms. and constitutes 9.59% of total length of border.

Indo – Bhutan

587 kms. i.e 3.86 percentage of total length of border.

Indo – Afghanistan

80kms. 0.52 percentage of total length of border.

11. Important Routes into India

i) High Ranges and passes are:

* Burzil and Zojilla in Jammu and Kashmir;

* Bara Lacha La and Shipki La in Himachal Pradesh;

* Nathu La and Jelep La in Sikkim

ii) From Afghanistan:

* The Passes of Khyber, Malkhand, Tochi, Gomal, Kohat have their base in Badakhshan province in Afghanistan provide easy passage to India.

iii) From Myanmar:

* The only passages are along the courses of rivers Brahmaputra, Mekong, Salween, and Ayeyarwadi- the main gaps are the Ann, Teju, Manipur Tulu, and Tongap.

12. Northern Mountain: It divided into two i) Himalayas ii) Purvanchal

 13. Himalayas: This further divided into 3

Western Region – Punjab Himalayas, Kumolon Himalayas, Karakoram, Ladakh Plateau, PirPanjal.

Eastern Region – Bhutan, Sikkim, Karjeeling, Assam Himalaya

Central Region – Nepal Himalayas

Can further be classified into:

Himadri – Greater Himalayas – 6000m

i) Overlasting Sonw

ii) Include Snow bound ranges and glacier of J.K.

iii) Important Peak and Ranges

Nanga Parbat, Nanda Devi, Mt Kamet, Zojila Pass, Bara lacha la, Shipki la, Nathula, Mt Everest, Dhaulagiri, Anna Purna.

14. Himachal – Lesser Himalayas – 2500 – 6000 m

Pir Panjal, Dhaul Dhar, Mussorie Range, Flat Structured Valley between Himachal and Siwalik – Doons, Mahabharat Range.

15. Siwaliks – below – 2500, Outer Himalaya Jammu Hills, Dehradun.

16. Misc: Main Himalayas – Pamir Plateau – A.P       Highest Peak – Mt. Everest

Glacier – Siachen, Hispar, Biafo, Baltoro

Highest Mountain : Peak – K2        Highest Pleateau – Ladak

17. Purvanchal Range A.P, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meg, Manipur, Assam, Tirupura – Collectively called Purvanchal Range.

18. GREAT PLAINS Lies between Great Himalayas and peninsula Plateau.

Recent Origin – Less than 2 million year old

Composed of Sediments:-

Rest, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Punjab, Haryana.

It has many depression – Jala Tal

19. Western or Rajasthan Plain-  * Marusthali of Thar

* Luni – who water is Sweet in the upper and Saltish in Lower

* A part of the Plain has also been formed by the recession of the sea as is evidenced by the occurrence of several brackish water lakes in the region such as Sambhar, Didwana, Kuchaman, Pachpadra, Lunkaran.

* At present Luni is the only flowing river which reaches the sea.

* The general slope of the Rajasthan Plain is from east to west towards the Indus river. But the South-Eastern part of the plain slopes down to south towards the Runn of Kutchchh.

20. Punjab Hariyana Plain- Also called as Sutlaj yamuna. These Plain Owe their Formation to Sutlej      Beas      Ravi     Bets are found near

Doab:-      Bari Doab – Beas Ravi      BIST Doab – Beas – Sutlaj

21. Ganga Plain:- The Ganga – Yamuna Doab comprising the Rohilikhand and the Avadh Plain is the tile area that is drained by the tributaries of Ganga.

The North Bengal Plains: The Plains extending from the foot of Eastern Himalayas to the northern limb of Bengal basin cover an area of 23,000km2.

22. Brahmaputra – Plain:-  Also called as Assam Valley      Extend from Sadiya to Dubri Formed by deposition of alluvium       Low level Plain

Surrounded by High Mountain all side     Except West.

23. Central Highlands:-

Its Southern limit is the lift valley of the Narmada. One of Madhya Pradesh one-third of Rajasthan and a small part of Uttar Pradesh are included in the highlands.  The whole region is forested and is inhabited mostly by the Gonds, Santhals, Oraons and Bhils. The Aravallis that extend southwestwards from Delhi to very close to Ahmedabad for a distance of about 800 km is the oldest tectonic (fold) mountain of India. It is composed mainly  of hard quartzite’s. Guru Shikhar (1,722m) on the Abu hills is the highest peak of the Aravalli range. The Bundelkhand upland lies between the Yamuna and the Vindhyan scarplands. Old Aravalli Mountain on the west and the Vindhyas on the South.

This region slopes northward to the Ganga Plains.

The Western part of the Central highlands is known as the Malwa Plateau.

The Central part has a number of small plateaus like those of Rewa, Baghelkhand and Bundlekhand.  The eastern part of the Central part of the Central Highlands comprises the Chotanagpur Plateau.

24. Peninsular Plateau:- 1. Oldest structure of the Indian subcontinent whose slow and steady movement towards north and north-east has been responsible for creation of the Himalayas and the Northern Plains in place of the Tethys sea.

2. The region north of the Narmada Valley is known as the Central Highlands and in south of the Narmada Valley lies the Deccan Plateau.

3. The Peninsula Plateau is roughly triangular in shape with base coinciding with southern edge of the great edge of the Great Plains.

4. The Marwara upland lies east of Aravali range made up of stand stone shales and limestone of Vindhayan period. The upland is drained is by Banas River originating in Aravali range.

5. The Central Highland drained by Chambal and its tributaries.

6. The Bundelkhand Upland to south of Yamuna river between Madhya Bharat Pathar and the Vindhyan scarap lands consists of granites and gneiss.

7. Malwa Plateau drained by a number of north flowing rivers like Betwa, Parbati, Kali Sindh, Chambal and Mahi.

8. Baghelkhand bounded by Son River on the North.

9. Chhotanagpur Plateau : The Plateau is drained by numerous rivers in a radial pattern such as Damodar, Subamrekha, North Koel, South Koel and Barakar

10. Meghalaya Plateau from east to west Plateau comprises Gana, Khasi and Jaintis hills and Mikit hills. Shilong is the highest point of the plateau.

11. The Deccan Plateau :- The general slope is form west to east. Indicated by flow of major rivers flike Mahanadi, Godwari, Krishna and Cauveri.

12. The Chhattisgarh Plain:- It is the only worth the name in the vast stretch of Plateau  drained by upper course of Mahanad. This Saucer shaped depression lies between Makal range and Orissa hills.

25. Coastal Plains:

Eastern Coastal

Western Coastal

1. Wider – dry

2. Many Deltal

3. Lies between eastern Ghats – Bay of Bengal

4. Northern half Kalinga Coast Southern half Coromandal Coast


6. Divided into

i) Utkal Plain

ii) Andhra Plain

iii) TN

Narrow wet

No Deltas

Lies between Western Ghats – Arabian Sea Stretch from Kutch – Kanyakumari




Divided into Kutch Plain, Gujarat Plain, Kokan Plain, Malabar Plain

26. Islands: 1.India has total 247 Islands 2.204 lie in Bay of Bengal 3. Remaining in  Arabian Sea

27. Bay of Bengal:

The Andaman & Nicobar group of islands are separated by 10 Degree channel.

The Andaman group of islands divided into 3 major groups viz., North Andaman, Middle Andaman and South Andaman. Collectively called Great Andaman’s.

Little Andaman is separated from Great Andaman’s by Duncan passage.

 Nicobar group of islands of which Great Nicobar is largest and southern most one. Saddle peak situated in Andaman Islands is the highest peak of Andaman & Nicobar group.

The Dhuliar peak is the highest peak of Andaman group of islands.

Barran island is dormant volcano and Narcondam island is extinct volcano.

Lakshwadeep islands: Coral – More Muslim population have fringing reefs.

They are 25 island groups. The island’s north is known as Amindivi.

Extreme south is Minicoy islands which is largest.




1. It runs parallel to the Western coast in a N- S direction from Tapi river to Kanyakumari

It runs in NE to SW the direction parallel to the eastern coast from Orissa to the Nilgiri hills

2. Average elevation – 900 – 1100m

Average elevation 600m


3. Average width – 50 to 80 km

Width varying from 100-200km


4. Stands like a continuous wall and can be crossed through passes only

Divided into several parts by large rivers

5. It has structural unity


Structural unity is lacking

6. Source of many large rivers from it

No big river originates


7. Almost perpendicular to the monsoon and therefore causes heavy rainfall in the west coastal plain.

It is almost parallel to SW monsoon coming from the Bay of Bengal and does not cause much rainfall.



1. The southernmost point of the Indian Union – Indira Point. From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time along the Standard Meridian of India (82o32’E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for the whole country.  Since the opening of the Suez  Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe has been reduced by 7,000 km.

Percentage of area :

Russia : 17.07, Canada: 9.97, USA: 9.80, China: 9.59, Brazil: 8.54, Australia: 7.68, India: 3.28

spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. The influence of Greek sculpture, and the architectural styles of dome and minarets from West Asia can be seen in different parts of our country.

2.  States sharing border with

a) Pakiststan, Rajasthan, Jand k, Punjab, Gjarat

b) China, Arunachal, Sikkim, H.P, Jandk

c) Bangladesh – West Bengal, Tripura Meghalaya, Assam

d) Myanmar, Arunachal Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram,

 Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated t the south of the Lakshadweep Islands.

3. Most volcanoes and earthquakes in the world are located at plate margins, but some do occur within the plates. The oldest landmass, (the Peninsula Part), was a part of the Gondwanaland includd India, Australia, South Africa and South America as one single land mass. The northward drift resulted in the collision of the plate with the much larger Eurasian Plate. Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.

4. Geologically, the peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earth’s surface. The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms.

5. The Himalayan Mountains: Represent the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain barriers of the world. they form an arc, which covers a distance of about 2,400 Km. their width varies from 400 Km in Kashmir to 150 Km in Arunachal Pradesh. The altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern half than those in the western half. The northern most range is known as the Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri. It is the most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres. It contains all the prominent Himalayan peaks.

Some Highest Peaks of the Himalayas

Peak                     Country      Height in mtrs

Mt. Everest            Nepal           8848

Kanchenjunga                India           8598

Makalu                  Nepal           8481

Dhaulagiri             Nepal           8172

Nanga Parbat        India           8126

Annapurna            Nepal           8078

Nanda Devi           India           7817

kamet                             India           7756

Namcha Barwa      India           7756

Gurla Mandhata    Nepal           7728

The folds of Great Himalayas are asymmetrical. North to South Karakonam, Ladkh, Kailash, Zaskar.

b) The range lying to the south of the Himadri forms the most rugged mountain system and is kwnon as Himachal or lesser Himalaya. The altitude varies between 3,700 and 4,500 metres and the average width is of 50 Km. While the Pir Panjal range forms the longest and the most important range, the Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat ranges are also prominent ones.  consists  of the famous valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and Kullu Valley in Himachal Pradesh. This region is well known for its hill stations.

c)  The outer most range of the Himalayas is called the Shiwaliks. They extend over a width of 10-50 Km and have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100 metres. composed of unconsolidated sediments. The longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalaya and the Shiwaliks are known as Duns. Dehradun, Kotli dun and Patli Dun are some of the well-kwnon duns.

d) The  part of Himalayas lying between Indus and Satluj has been traditionally known as Punjab Himalaya but it is also known regionally as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from west to east respectively. The part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers is kwnon as Kumaon Himalayas. The Kali and Tista rivers demarcate the Nepal Himalayas and the part lying between Tista and Dihang rivers is known as Assam Himalayas.

e) Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India. they are known as the Purvachal or the Eastern hills  and mountains. The Purvachal comprises the Patkai hills, the Naga hills, Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.

6. The Northern Plain: The plain being about 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 Km broad, is a densely populated physiographic division. Majuli, in the Brahmaputra River is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world. Western part of the Northern Plain is referred to as the Punjab Plains. The larger part of this plain lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributaries – the Jhelum. Cgenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj originate in the Himalaya. This section of the plain is dominated by the doabs. Doabs is made up of two words- ‘do’ meaning two and ‘ab’ meaning water. Similarly ‘Punjab is also made up two words, Punj meaning five and ‘ab’ meaning water.

b) The Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. To its East particularly in Assam lies the Brahmaputra plain

c) According to the variations in relief features, the Northern plains can be divided into four regions. The rivers, after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks. It is known as bhabar. All the streams disappear in this bhabar belt. South of this belt, the streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region known as terai. this was a thickly forested region full of wildlife.

d) The largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium. This part is known as bhangar. The soil in this region contains calcareous deposits locally known as Kanpur. The newer, younger deposits of the flood plains are called Khadar.

7. The Peninsular Plateau: It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land. consists of central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. the part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravalis on the northwest. The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east. The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. the Chotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension, drained by the Damodar river.

8. The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada. the Satpura range flanks its broad base in the north while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range form its eastern extensions. The Deccan Plateauis higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards. An extension of the Plateau is also visible in the northeast – locally known as the Meghalaya. Three Prominent hill ranges from the west to east are the Garo, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills. Western Ghats lie parallel to the western coast. They are continuous and can be crossed through passes only the Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats.  Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is 900-1600 metres as against 600 metres of the Eastern Ghats. the Eastern Ghats stretch from the Mahanadi Valley  to the Nigiris in the south. Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal. The Western Ghats cause orographic rain. The height of the Western Ghats progressively increases from north to south. the highest peaks include the Anai Mudi (2, 695 metres) and the Doda Betta(2,637 metres). Mahendragiri (1,501 metres) is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats. shevroy Hills and he Javadi Hills are located to the southeast of the Eastern Ghats. The Aravali Hills lie on the western and northwestern margins of the peninsular plateau.

9. The Indian Desert:This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year. It has arid climate with low vegetation cover. Luni is the only large river in this region.  Barchans (crescent shaped dunes)cover larger areas but longitudinal dunes become more prominent near the Indo-Pakistan boundary. If you visit Jaisalmer, you may go to see a group of barchans.

The Coastal Plains : The western coast, sandwiched between the western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai – Goa) the central stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar coast.   The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level. In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast.  Lake Chilika is an important feature along the Estern coast.

10. The Islands: Lakshadweep Islands group lying close to the Malabar cost of Kerala small coral islands. earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. In 1973 these were named as Lakshadweep. It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters. The Pitti island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary. The Great Barrier reef of Australia is a good example of the first kind of coral reefs. Atolls are circular or horse shoe shaped coral reefs. Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. These islands lie close to equator and experience equatorial climate and has thick forest cover. India’s only active volcano is found on Barren island in Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands.




Salt Lake               - In Aksai Chin (under China) a glaciated lake in                                             Trans Himalayas   

Wular Lake            - Ox- bow lake of Jelum located NW of Srinagar,                                                      freshwater lake

Dal Lake                - In Srinagar a freshwater lake on Jhelum famous for                                               Shinkaras

Pangong               - Glaciated Lake in Ladhak region disputed with China

Tso Morari             - Glaciated Lake in J&K located in Zaskar range

Gohna                   - Near Devprayag, formed by landslide, on Brahmashri                         River

Nanini                   - Freshwater, in Nainital

Sambhar               - India’s largest inland saltwater lake, salt extraction

Nakki                    - In Mt. Abu (Aravallis)

Lonar                    - Crater Lake in Maharashtra

Loktak                   - Freshwater Lake, longest in NE in Manipur, HEP                                located here Keibul lembjao floating island Park lies                                         in it

Chilka                   - A wetland, under Ramsar convention, largest lagoon                                   in India dotted by many small islands heritage Site

Kolleru                  - Largest freshwater lake in Andra Pradesh in Krishna                                             Godavari delta

Pulicat                   - Lagoon, Sriharikota Island, (Rocket launching)                                                     ecologically fragile Sand bar Andra Pradesh

Vembanad             - In Kerala Lagoon famous for natural beauty Boat                                        competition every year Kochi located on it backwaters

Astamudi               - Kollam located on it Lagoon backwaters

Rajsamand            - Freshwater, Udaipur, cultivation on island located in                                              it

Nalsarover             - Freshwater, Gujarat, Bird Sanctuary





NAME                                                STATE                                    

Agnigundala                                      Andhra Pradesh

Taskhing (Subanshri)                         Arunachal Pradesh

Tanloi (Sahibganj)                              Bihar

Surajkund (Hazaribagh,)          Jharkhand

Parasanth (Dhanbad)

Manikaran (Kullu)                              Himachal Pradesh

Wujul (Gulbarga)                               Karnataka

Puga (Ladakh_                                   Jammu & Kashmir

Sarguja (Deori)                                  Madhya Pradesh

Tarabela (Puri)                                   Orissa

Sarasakund (Purulia)                         West Bengal



WATER FALL                 RIVER                  LOCATION

Jog Falls                         Shravati                Shimoga, Karnataka

Yenna Falls                     Kishna                   Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra

Sivasamundram              Kaveri                   Mandya, Karnataka

Gokak                             Ghtaprabha           Belgaum, Karnataka

Kapildhara                      Narmada               M.P.

Dhuandhar                     Narmada               Bedaghat, Jabalpur, M.P.

Pykara                            Pykara River Ooty, Tamilnadu

Doodhsagar                    Mandovi                Goa



Karakoram – Located in Karakoram Range (J&K) connects India and China

ZoziLa- Located in Zaskar range in J7K, it connects Leh with Srinagar

Burzil – Connects Pakistan occupied Kashmir (poK) with Kashmir Valley; part of Great Himalayas in J&K

Banihal pass – Lies in Pir- Panjal range connects Jammu with Kashmir Valley

Bara Lacha La- In Great Himalayas, it connects Lahaul-Spiti (H.P.) with Leh-Ladakh (J&K)

Rohtang Pass- Connects Manali with Leh through road lies in H.P.

Shipki La- In H.P.’ Sutlaj Gorge is located here. Tibet – Himalayan road passes through this pass

Thaga La- Mana pass Niti pass, Darma pass – All are located in Greater Himalayas in Uttarakhand. These connect India with Tibat

Lipu Lekh: lies at the tri- junction of India, Nepal and China in Uttarakhand Connects India with China

Nathu La –In Sikkim connects Tobat (Lhasa) wuth India. part of Greater Himalayas. Newly opened trade toute between India and China

Jelep La – In Greater Himalayas (Sikkim) connects India with Tibet through Darjeeling and Chumbi Valley. Ancient trade route between India and Tibet

Goranghat – Lies in Aravalli Mountain Range

Thalghat – Located in Sahyadris (Western Ghats) It connects Mumbai with Nasik

Bhor Ghat – First railway line was laid down through this pass (1853); connects Mumbai with Pune

Palghat – Lies in Nilgiri Hills (Western Ghats) connects Cochin (Kerala coast) with Coimbatore (T.N.) Nilgiri Hills are located to its north while Cardamom hills are situated to its south




PEAK/HILLS STATION                    RANGE                           STATE

Guru Sikhar/Mt. Abu                          Aravali                             Rajasthan

Doda Betta/Ooty                                Nilgiri                              TN

Animudi                                             Sahyadri/W. Ghat           Kerala

Mahenfragiri                                      Eastern Ghats                 Orissa

Parasnath                                          Chhotanagpur                Jharkhand

Dhupgarh/Panch Mari                        Satpuras (Mahadev)       MP

Nokrek (Wildife Sanctuary)                Garo Hills                        Meghalaya

Japvo                                                 Kohima Hills          Nagaland

Saramati                                            Naga Hilla                       Nagaland

K2 (*Godwin Austin)                          Karakoram                      poK/J&K

Saddle Peak                                       North Andaman              

Nanga Parbat (westernmost point

of Himalayas)                                     Greater Himalayas J&K

Namcha Barwa (Bramhaputra

turns southward here                         Greater Himalayas China

Kedarnath                                          Greater Himalayas      Uttarakhand

Badrinath                                           Greater Himalayas      Uttarakhand

Kamet                                                Greater Himalayas      Uttarakhand

Nanda Devi (Valley of

Flower located here                            Greater Himalayas      Uttarakhand

Kanchan Junga                                  Greater Himalayas      Sikkim

Kalsubai                                             Sahyadaris                  Maharashtra   



Wetland                          State

Kolleru                            Andhra Pradesh

Wular                              Jammu and Kashmir

Chilika                            Orissa

Loktak                            Manipur

Bhoj                                Madhya Pradesh

Sambhar                         Rajasthan

Pichola                            Rajasthan

Ashtamudi                      Kerala

Sasthamkotta                 Kerala

Harike                             Punjab

Kanjali                            Punjab

Ujni                                Maharashtra

Renuka                           Himachal Pradesh

Kabar                              Bihar

Nalsarovar                      Gujarat

Sukhan                           Chandigarh




Mangrove                                         State

Northern Andaman and Nicobar          Andaman and Nicobar

Sunderbans                                       West Bengal

Bhitar Kanika                                     Orissa

Loringa                                              Andhra Pradesh

Krishna Estuary                                  Andhra Pradesh

Godavari Delta                                   Andhra Pradesh

Mahanadi Delta                                  Orissa

Pichavaram                                        Tamil Nadu

Point Calimere                                    Tamil Nadu

Goa                                                    Gujarat

Gulf of Kutch                                     Karnataka

Achra                                                 Maharashtra

Ratnagiri                                            Maharashtra

Vembanad                                          Kerala         



PARK                                       LOCATION             PROTECTED ANIMAL (S)

Dachigam Sanctuary       Jammu Kashmir        Kashmir Stag

Gir Forest                        Gujarat                    Lions (Asistic)

Kanha National Park        Madhya Pradesh        Tiger, Panther Nilghai,                                                                                           Barking Deer

Sunderbans                    West Bengal               Royal Bengal Tiger

Ghana Bird Sanctuary     Bhratpur, Rajasthan  Siberian Cranbe

Corbett National Park      Naini Uttrakhand             Tiger, Elephant Nilghai

Manas Sanctuary            Assam                             Wild Cats, Deer

Kaziranga                       Assam                             One Horned Rhinoceros

Bandipur Sanctuary        Karnataka                       Spotted Deer

Chandra Prabha

Sanctuary                       Varanasi, U.P.                 Indian Lion (Asiatic)

Hazaribagh National

Park                                Hazatibagh, Jharkhand   Tiger, Leopard

Mudumalai Sanctuary     Tamil Nadu                     Wild Elephant Wild Boar

Periyar Game Sanctuary  Kerala                            Wild Elephant and                                                                                                  Indian Bison

Shivpuri Park                  Gwalior, Madhya

                                      Pradesh                          Wild Elephant Deer

Dudhwa National Park     Lakhimpur Kheri u.p.       Nilgai

Namdafa Wildlife

Sanctuary                       Trip, Arunanchal

                                      Pradesh                          Tiger

Simlipal Sanctuary Mayurbhanj, Orissa         Tiger

Kolleru                            Elikeneri Elieru, AP

Vedanthangal Bird

Sanctuary                       Chinglepet Tamil Nadu   

Ranganathito Bird

Sanctuary                       Mysore, Karnataka

Irambikulam Rajmallai     Idukki, Kerala

Dampha Sanctuary         Aizwal, Mizoram

Jaldapara Sanctuary        Jalpaigudi, West Bengal

Madhav Nation Park        Shivpuri , Madhya


Bori Sanctuary                Hoshangabad, M.P

Bandhavgarth National   Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh        Tiger


Fossil National Park         Mandla, MP                               Tiger

Sanjay National Park       Sidhi (Sarguja) MP         

Sita Sanctuary                Raipur Chattisgarh

Sanjay Gandhi                Borivalli, Maharashtra               Tiger

Pench Sanctuary             M.P.-Maharashtra                     Tiger

Ranthambhor National     Sawai Madhopur                       Tiger

Park                                Rajasthan                                 Tiger

Sarikaidevi  Sanctuary      Alwar, Rajasthan           Tiger

Shikaridevi Sanctuary       Mandi, Himachai Pradesh        Monal Bird

Ross Island National

Park                                Ross Island Andaman               Tiger

Marine National Park       Andaman                                  Tiger

Sultanpur Bird

Sanctuary                       Haryana

Bondla Wildlife               

Sanctuary                       Goa

Kangarghat National

Park                                Chatisgaeh

Orang Sanctuary             Assam

Ushkothi Wildlife

Sanctuary                       Orissa         



BHAKRA NANGAL (SATLUJ)  Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. 2 dams Bhakra and Nangal. Power houses with          combined installed capacity of 120 MW        One of the highest Gravity Dams in the world (226m)Huge reservoir (Gobind Sagar Lake in Bilaspur District of Himachal Pradesh

DAMODAR VALLEY PROJECT (DAMODAR)This was the first multipurpose river project

in India.In 1948 project executed on the model of TVA   (Tennesseee valley River project ) of USa.Bokaro and Durgapur Thermal Power Stations          are the important  link to DVC Power Stations System another purpose is Flood control

HIRAKUND (MAHANADI)in Sambalpar). One of the longest dams in the world (4,801m

Two other dams on Mahanadi are at Tikraparaand Naraj3 canals have been taken out for irrigationIt also provides for navigation facility besidespower generation

RIHAND (TRIBUTARY OF SON)Mirzapur Disst U.P.                Most important multipurpose project in U.P.Gobind ballabh pant sagar is the largest man       made reservoir in India


Gandhinagar (M.P.)                  Gandhinagar – long masonry gravity dam

Rana Pratap Sagar          Rana Pratap Masonry dam at Rawat Bhata

Rajasthan)                               Kawahar Sagar is also called Kota Dam

Jawahar Sagar



Balmikinagar (Bihar)                 Joint venture of U.P. and Bihar through Nepal                                                        also get irrigation and power facilities


Mallapur, Bellary disst.              Joint undertaking of Andhra Pradesh Karnataka

(Karnataka)                              Masonry Dam


Hanumannagar                         Kosi – Sorrow of Bihar

                                                Object of project – irrigation, flood control, power                                        generation, land reclamation, fishing and                                                              navigation


Sardar Sarovar Project              Joint venture of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and

on lower Narmada Vally            Maharashtra Rajasthan is Beneficiary States

in Gujarat                                 Most controversial project in India

Narmada Sagar Dam                 Narmada has the largest no. of tributaries

project at Narmada in

Madhya Pradesh


Nalgonda Distt.                        Lal Bahadur canal had been taken off from it

(Andhra Pradesh)                     besides the Jawahar Canal


Garhwal District                        One of the controversial projects in India




States                            Name of the Hydroelectric Plants

J&K                                 Lower Jhelum Url, Sa;a; and Dulhasti

Punjab and H.P.              Bhakara Nangal (Satluj), Pong on Beas, Rongtong, Nathpa

                                      Jhakri (biggest hydel power project in India) on river Satluj

                                      Chamera and Thien on Ravi

Uttarakhand                   Tehri Dam on Bhagirathi

U.P.                                Rehand, Khodri on Tons

Rajasthan                       Rana Pratap Sagar and Jawhar Sagar on Chambal

M.P.                                Gandhi Sagar on Chambal, pench, Sardar Sarovar on                                            Narmada

Bihar                               Kosi

Jharkhand                      Subarnrekha; Maithon, Panchet, Tilaiya, (all three under                                       DVC)

W.B.                               Panchet

Orissa                             Hirakud on Mahanadi, Balimela

North East                      Loktak (Manipur), Kopili (Assam), Khandong (Meghalya)

Gujarat                           Ukai and Kakarapara (Tapi), Kadana (Mahi)

Maharashtra                   Koyana Bhivpuri (Tata Hydroelectric Workis)

A.P.                                 Sileru, Nizamsagar (Manjra), Nagarjun Sagar & Srisailam                              (Krishna)

Karnataka                       Tuganhadra, Sharavati, Mahatma Gandhi (Jog Fall), Siva                                      Samudram (Kaveri), Lungnamakki

Kerala                             Idukki (Periyar), Sabarigiri, Ponnair

T.N.                                Mettur, Papanasam, Kundah

M.P, UP, and Bihar Banasagar project (On Son river)

India and Bhutan            Chukka project

J&K                                 Dul Hasti (On the river Chenab)

Bihar and UP                   Gandak project (On the river Gandak)

Karnataka (Bijapur)         Ghataprabha Valley

Maharashtra                   Jayakwadi project (On the river Godavari)

Gujarat                           Kakrapara project (On Tapi River)

Karnataka (Belgaum)      Malaprabha project (Malaprabha river

TN and Kerala                 Parambikulam Aliyar

Andhra Pradesh              Poochampad (On Betwa River)

MP, & UP                         Rajghat Dam project (On Betwa River)

J&K                                 Salal project (Chenab)

Hoshangabad                  Tawa Project (Tawa River, a Tributary of the Narmada)

district (MP)

Tamil Nadu                     Papanasam Scheme (Tambraparni river)

Kerala, TN                       Sholayar project (Sholayar River)

Andhra Pradesh              Srisaliam power project (Kishna River)

Andhra Pradesh              Balimela Hydro-Electric Project (Sileru River)

and Orissa

Meghalaya                      U,iam Project (Umiam River



1) Administrative Division : Before Independence, there were 562 princely states and 9 protectorates of England.----There are thorny bushes in Rajasthan in contrast to the dense forests of Assam. ---India  is a land of colours.--- Sun’s white light is composed of all the colours.--- These colours are associated with gemstones: cat’s eye, hessonite, coral, sapphire, pearl, emerald, yellow sapphire, diamond, and ruby.

2) Quotes About India

Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count.

Mark Twain said : India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grant mother of tradition.

French scholar Romain Rolland said: If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home.

Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA said: India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries.


Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun.----Value of “Pi” was first calculated  by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean.-----Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.-----Until 1896, India was the only source for diamonds to the world.-----The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.---Chess (Shataranja or Ashta Pada).was invented in India. Sushruta is the father of surgery.---Usage of  anesthesia was well known in ancient India. Over 125 surgical equipments were used.

4) The land of India may be divided into two large regions, on the basis of the geographical features:

Natural Region: 1. Landforms    2. Climate     3. Natural Vegetation

Cultural Region: 1. Agriculture 2. Industries    3.  Service   4.  Human Resource

5)The Vindhya-Satpura mountains run west to east, parallel to the Narmada valley. They are in fact not mountains but the ‘walls’ of the Narmada valley. They end near Varanasi.------ The Vindhya mountains are the side walls of the Narmada valley.

The Satpura mountains are found between the rivers Narmada and the Tapti.----Satpura’ means ‘seven folds’. The Satpura mountains are very ancient fold mountains.-----Kodaikanal Hills and the Kutralam Hills are indeed parts of the Western Ghats. The important summer resorts such as Udhagamandalam, Coonoor, Kothagiri and Kodaikanal are on these hill ranges.-----the Thirupathi hills, Javadhu hills, Pachamalai and Kollimalai are the most important . Yercaud and Yelagiri are the significant touristic places of these hills.----The Malwa Plateau is in the form a small triangle. In the northwest of it are the Aravalli hill ranges. At one time, the Aravalli hills were loftier than the Himalayas.

6) The Deccan Plateau: It is the large triangular plateau south of the Narmada valley. At the broader part of the triangle are the Vindhya mountains, and at the apex of the plateau is Kanyakumari. The three sides of the plateau are covered with mountains. In the north the Satpuras, in the west the Western Ghats and in the east the Eastern Ghats. This plateau slopes towards the east. Hence, the important rivers of the Deccan run east and join the Bay of Bengal. In the northeast of the plateau is the Chotta Nagpur Plateau.The Chotta Nagpur PLateau is rich in minerals.Himalayas formed by the folding of the sedimentary rocks.