1. In a pyramid of numbers, in a grassland ecosystem, the largest population is that of

a) Producers
b) Tertiary Consumers
c) Secondary consumers
d) Herbivores

2. Which of the following group of gases cause photochemical smog?

a) Ozone, PAN and CO
b) HC, NO and PAN
c) O2, PAN, and NO2
d) O3, PAN and NO2


3. Which of the following statements regarding species interdependence are true?
A) An association of two species where one is benefitted and other remains unaffected called mutualism
B) An interspecific association where both partners derive benefit from each other is called commensalism
C) A direct food relation between two species of animals in which one animals kills and feed on another is referred as predation
D) A relationship between two species of organism where both the partners are benefitted from each other is called symbiosis.

a) A and B only
b) C and D only
c) A and C only
d) B and C only

4. The species of plants that play a vital role in controlling the relative abundance of other species in a community are called

a) Edge species
b) Link species
c) Pioneer species
d) Keystone species


5. Habitat loss and fragmentation, over exploitation, alien species invasion and co extinction are causes for

a) Population exploitation
b) Pollution
c) Migration
d) Biodiversity loss


6.  The major pollutant from automoblie exhaust is  
a) NO                   b) CO
c) SO2                  d) Soot

7. One greenhouse gas contributes 14% to total global warming and another contributes 6%. These are respectively identified as

a) N2O and CO2
b) CFCs and N2O
c) Methane and CO2
d) Methane and CFCs

8. Which of the following is false?

a) Quantity of biomass in a trophic level at a particular period is called as standing crop
b) The energy content in a trophic level is determined is determined by considering a few individuals of a species in that trophic level.
c) The succession that occurs in newly cooled lava is called primary succession
d) Rate of succession is faster in secondary succession


9. Many freshwater animals cannot live for long in sea water and vice versa mainly because of the

a)  Change in N levels
b) Change in the levels of thermal tolerance
c) Variations in light intensity
d) Osmotic problems

10. Which of the following regarding ecological pyramids is not correct?

a) In most ecosystems, the pyramid of numbers and biomass are up right
b) In tree dominated ecosystem the pyramid of numbers is inverted
c) The pyramid of energy expresses mainly the rate of food production
d) In deep water ecosystem, the pyramid of biomass is upright

11. Air pollution is severe in
a) Cities
b) Industrialised areas
c) Densely populated areas
d) all of these


12. Particulate pollutants are

a) are small solid particles and liquid droplets
b) liquid droplets in atmosphere
c) are small solid particles released into the atmosphere
d) all of these


13. All are particulate pollutants except

a) dust
b) ozone
c) soot
d) smoke


14. Fine organic or inorganic particles suspended in air is called

a) particulate pollutant
b) gaseous pollutant
c) aerosol
d) none of these


15. Which of the following is a secondary pollutant

a) CO2
b) CO
c) O3
d) SO2


16. Air pollution can be of

a) natural origin
b) artificial or man made origin
c) both a and b
d) b only


17. Man made sources of radiation pollution are:
a) mining
b) explosion of nuclear weapons
c) nuclear fuels and preparation of radioactive isotopes
d) all of these


18. The true statement about ‘green house effect’ is that it is

a) caused by combination of many gases
b) caused by  CO2
c) caused only by CO2, CFC, CH4  and NO2 gases
d) None of these


19. The supersonic jets cause pollution by the thinning of

a) CO2 layer
b) SO2 layer
c)  O3 layer
d)  O2 layer


20. Carbon mono oxide is a pollutant because

a) it reacts with O2
b) it inhibits glycolysis
c)  makes nervous system inactive
d) reacts with haemoglobin


21. Which one is true?
a) symbiosis when neither population affects each other
b) symbiosis when the interaction is useful to both the populations
c) commensalism when none of the interacting populations affect each other
d) commensalism when the interaction is useful to both the populations

22. A high density of elephant population in an area can result in
a) mutualism
b) Intraspecific competition
c) Interspecific competition
d) Predation on one another

23. Barnacles growing on the back of whale is an example for
a) mutualism
b) parasitism
c) amensalism
d) commensalism

24. Pencillium does not swallow the growth of bacterium Staphylococcus. This sort of relationship is called
a) Commensalism
b) Predation
c) Amensalism
d) Mutualism

25. Symbiosis is shown by
a) Lichens
b) Cuscuta
c) Rafflesia
d) Monotropa

26. When both partners are affected negatively the nature of interaction is
a) commensalism
b) competition
c) predation
d) amensalism

27. An association between two individuals or populations where both are benefitted and where neither can survive without the other is
a) competition
b) commensalism
c) mutualism
d) protocoperation

28. Which of the following interactions will not promote co evolution?
a) commensalism
b) mutualism
c) parasitism
d) interspecific competition

29. The effect of interspecific competition on niches is to make them
a) larger
b) smaller
c) more triangular
d) change location

Mycorrhiza represents
a) symbiotic association between a fungus and liverworts
b) parasitic association between a fungus and an alga
c) parasitic association between a fungus and roots of plants
d) symbiotic association between a fungus and roots of higher plants

31. The cutting down of trees and setting them on fire and raising crops on the resulting ash is called:
a) Pyrolysis
b) Jhum
c) Taungya system
d) Shift cultivation

32. Percentage of forest area recommended by the the national forest policy for plains is
a) 33%
b) 67%
c) 30%
d) 10%
33. Example of primary pollutant
a) SO2
b) NO2
c) CO
34.Commonly used radioactive isotopes in scientific research
a) 14 C
b) 125 I
c) 32 P
d) all of these

35. Drinking of fluoride containing water results
a) fluorosis
b) chlorosis
c) minemata
d) methaemoglobinema
36. Chipco movement is a public agitation that occurred in
a) Mansbal area in Kashmir
b) Silent valley in Kerala
c) Sundarban area in Bengal
d) Tehri Garhwal area of Uttar Pradesh
37. High biological oxygen demand indicates:
a) absence of microbial pollution
b) moderate microbial pollution
c) intense level of microbial pollution
d) all of these
38. Ozonospere seen in
a) ionosphere
b) thermosphere
c) mesophere
d) stratosphere

39. Harmful trace metals in fly ash:
a) antimony
b) cadmium
c) arsenic
d) all of the above


40. The main atmospheric layer near the surface of earth is
a) troposphere
b) mesophere
c) ionosphere
d) stratospere

41. The pyramid of numbers is inverted in the case of
a) parasitic food chain
b) Grassland ecosystem
c) Forest ecosystem
d) lake ecosystem

42. The concept of ecological pyramid was first proposed by

a) E.P. Odum
b) A.G. Tansley
c) Juday
d) Charles Elton

43. The pyramid of energy in terrestrial ecosystem is

a) upright
b) inverted
c) spindle shaped
d) irregular

44. Which of the following ecological pyramid is always upright?
a) Pyramid of energy
b)Pyramid of number
c) Pyramid of biomass
d) none of these

45. The pyramid of numbers in a single tree is

a) upright
b) inverted
c) spindle shaped
d) none of these

46. A graphic representation of number of individuals of different species belonging to each trophic level in a an ecosystem is known as

a) ecological pyramid
b) pyramid of biomass
c) pyramid of number
d) pyramid of energy

47. The pyramid of biomass is inverted in

a) forest ecosystem
b) grassland ecosystem
c) fresh water ecosystem
d) tundra

48. In pond ecosystem, the pyramid of biomass is

a) upright
b) inverted
c) spindle shaped
d) none of these

49. In grassland ecosystem, the pyramid of biomass is

a) upright
b) inverted
c) spindle shaped
d) none of these

50. Which of the following statement is incorrect regarding ecological pyramids

a) The pyramid of energy is inverted in ocean ecosystem
b) The pyramid of biomass is inverted in aquatic ecosystem
c) The pyramid of numbers is upright in grass land ecosystem
d) The pyramid of biomass is upright in grass land ecosystem


51. Organisms having the potential for interbreeding and producing fertile offspring is called
a) Class
b) Order
c) Genus
d) Species
52. A group of individuals of a plant or animal species, inhabiting a given area is called
a) Biome
b) Population
c) Ecosystem
d) Community
53. Climate includes
a) Seasonal variation
b) General patterns of atmosphere conditions
c) Average weather of an area
d) All of these
54. The maintenance of relatively constant internal environment is called
a) Homeostasis
b) Exotherms
c) Homeobox
d) Endotherms
55. All are physical pollutants except

a) heat
b) sound
c) radiations
d) soot

56. Ecological niche of an organism represents
a) The resource it utilizes
b) Functional role in the ecological system
c) The range of conditions that it can tolerate
d) all of these
57. Respiratory roots are known as
a) velamen
b) pneumatophores
c) hydathodes
d) prop roots

58. The gradual physiological adjustment to slowly changing new environmental conditions is known as
a) Selection
b) Introduction
c) Acclimatization
d) Quarantine
59.Upper layer of water in a single body of water is known as
a) Hypolimnion
b) Epilimnion
c) thermocline
d) Hydroline
60. The lower limit of water availability is soil is known as
a) field capacity
b) Hypolimnion
c) thermocline
d) wilting point


61. MAB program stands for

a) Man and biotechnology
b) Material and biology
c) Man and Biology
d) Man and Biosphere


62. Red data book contains data of


a) all plant species
b) all animal species
c) economically important species
d) threatened species

63. IUCN (The International Union For Conservation Of Nature And Natural Resources) headquarters is at

a) Morges, Switzerland
b) Paris, France
c) Vienna, Austria
d)NewYork, USA


64. IUCN is also called as

a) Man and Biosphere program
b) World Conservation Union
c) World Conservation Consortium
d) World Wide Conservation Union


65. Which of the following region has maximum diversity

a) mangroves
b) grassland
c) taiga
d) coral reefs


66. Approximately, 50% of total world species are present on

a) tropical rain forest
b) temperate rain forest
c) temperate deciduous forest
d) coral reefs


67. Biodiversity

a) increases towards the equator
b) decreases towards the equator
c) remains same throughout the planet
d) has no effect on change in latitude


68. The most important reason for decrease in biodiversity is

a) habitat pollution
b) introduction of exotic species
c) over-exploitation
d) habitat destruction



69. Dodo is ___ species

a) endangered
b) critically endangered
c) rare
d) extinct


70. Blue whale is placed under

a) endangered
b) critically endangered
c) rare
d) extinct


71. Conservation within the natural habitat is

a) insitu conservation
b) exsitu conservation
c) invivo conservation
d) exvivo conservation


72. All are insitu conservation efforts except

a) National parks
b) Sanctuaries
c) Zoo
d) biosphere reserves


73. Ex situ conservation includes

a) Zoo
b) Botanic garden
c) Germplasm bank
d) all of the above


74. Hot spots are regions of high

a) rarity
b) endemism
c) critically endangered population
d) diversity


75. Endemic species are

a) rare species
b) species localised in a specific region
c) cosmopolitan in distribution
d) critically endangered species


76. What is the animal symbol of W. W. F (World Wildlife Fund) ?
a) Red Panda
b) Giant Panda
c) Tiger
d) Kangaroo


77. The most important human activity, leading to the extinction of wildlife, is

a) Pollution of wildlife
b) Hunting for valuable wildlife products
c) Introduction of alien species
d) Alternation and destruction of the natural habitats


78. If we uncover half of the forest, covering of the earth, what crisis will be produced at most and at first?

a) Some species will be extincted
b) Population and ecological imbalance will rise up
c) Energy crisis will occur
d) Rest half forests will maintain this imbalance


79. When is the World Wildlife week ?

a) First week of September
b) Last week of September
c) First week of October
d) Last week of October


80. Red Data Book Provides data on

a) Red flowered plants
b) Red colored fishes
c) Lists of plants and animals
d) Endangered plants and animals


81. Wild life is continuously decreasing. What is the main reason of this?

a) Predation
b) Cutting down of forest
c) Destruction of habitat
d) Hunting


82. What is the major cause of diminishing wildlife number?

a) Felling of trees
b) Cannibalism
c) Habitat destruction
d) Paucity of drinking water


83. Viable material of endangered species can be preserved by

a) Gene bank
b) Gene library
c) Gene pool
d) Herbarium


84. Which group of vertebrates comprises the highest number of endangered species?

a) Mammals
b) Fishes
c) Birds
d) Reptiles


85.  Which of the following is mainly responsible for the extinction of wild life

a) Pollution of air and water
b) Hunting of flesh
c) Destruction of Habitats
d) All of these


86. The unfavourable alteration of environment due to human activities is termed as

a) ecological disturbance
b) catastrophe
c) ecological degradation
d) pollution


87. Which of the following is the best indicator of SO2 pollution

a) bryophyte
b) pteridophyte
c) Lichen
d) algae


88. Heavy dust can cause

a) leaf blights
b) opening of stomata
c) closure of stomata
d) browning of leaves


89. Which of the following is the major cause of pollution

a) plants
b) man
c) fungi
d) hydrocarbon gases


90. Minamata disease was caused by pollution of water by

a) mercury
b) lead
c) tin
d) methyl iso cyanate


91. BOD stands for

a) biotic oxidation demand
b) biological oxidation demand
c) biological oxygen demand
d)biochemical oxygen demand


92. A river with high BOD value is

a) highly polluted
b) highly clean
c) highly productive
d) none of these


93. All are primary pollutants except

a) Ammonia
b) Peroxy Acyl Nitrate (PAN)
c) sulphur dioxide
d) hydrogen sulphide


94. Cement factory labourers are prone to

a) leukemia
b) bone marrow disease
c) asbestosis
d) cytosilicosis


95. The occurrence of pesticides like DDT in higher trophic levels is termed as

a) bioremediation
b) biomagnification
c) biological enhancement
d) biopollution



96. The undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land and water is referred as

a) pollutants
b) ecodestructions
c) pollution
d) all of these


97. Radiation can cause
a) cardiac disease
b) Haemophilia
c) leukemia
d)bone marrow diseases


98. Which of the radioactive material is largely associated with bone cancer

a) radium-226
b) thorium-232
c) Strontium-90
d) iodine


99. Lead poisoning

a) reduces O2 carrying capacity of haemoglobin in blood
b) increases O2 carrying capacity of haemoglobin in blood
c) reduces O2 carrying capacity of myoglobin in muscles
d) increases O2 carrying capacity of myoglobin in muscles


100. Earth summit was held in

a) Stockholm in 1972
b) Rio de Jeneiro in 1992
c) Paris in 1992
d) New York in 1972


101. What are Rightly matched on Wetlands and their State?

1. Ashtamudi - Orissa

2. Chilka - Kerala

3. Harike - Punjab

4. Kolleru - Assam

a) 1,2           

b) 2,3  

c) 4 only       

d) 3 only       


102. Montreux records are associated with?

a) Kyoto protocol

b) Ozone hole

c) Equitorial forests

d) Wetlands                        



103. It is a Biosphere reserve located one of the Islands of India. It has been added to the World network of Biosphere reserve in 2013. It is__?

a) Minicoy

b) Middle Andaman

c) Narcondam

d) Nicobar Islands               


104. Which are protected Areas under The Wildlife protection act of 1972?

1. Community reserves

2. Biodiversity hotspots

3. Eco regions 

4. Sanctuaries

a) 1,2           

b) 2,4

c) 1,4                  

d)2,3 ,4                             



105. Find the wrong pair?

a) Kaziranga – One horned rhino

b) Gir forest – Asiatic lion

c) Corbett – marine turtles

d) Bandipur – Indian Bison


106. Alien species that cause the most harm are those that

a) struggle to fit into new ecosystems and eventually die out.

b) eventually become naturalized   

c) become invasive

d) become agricultural products.           



107. Which is NOT related to Biodiversity?

a) Cartegena protocol

b) Nagoya protocol           

c) Aichi Targets

d) Coppenhagen Accord       


108. Which are Biodegradable waste materials?

a) Wool , polythene bags, plastics, synthetic fibres

b) Animal dung, synthetic fibres, glass, metals.

c) Cotton, Glass, synthetic rubber, insecticides

d) Wood,  leather, paper, animal bones       



109. What are the basic needs of Aquatic Biota?

1. Carbon Di oxide 

2. Oxygen

3. Minerals                  

4. Sunlight

5. Aeration of the Soil  

a) 1,3                   b) 4,5

c) 1,2,3,4              d) 2,3                         


110. Which are Ozone depleting substances?

a) Chloro Fluro Carbon (CFC) and Oxygen

b) CFC’S , HALONS and CO2


d) All the above           


111. I. India is one of the 17 megediverse nations.

II. Western Ghats of India is now one among the Hottest of Hotspots of Biodiversity.

a) I correct            b) II correct

c) Both correct       d) Both wrong      


112. I. Protected forest has limited degree of protection.

II. All activities in reserve forest are permitted unless prohibited

a) I correct            b) II correct

c) Both correct       d) Both wrong      


113. Which are of Critically Endangered Bird Species of India?

1. Siberian Crane

2. White-rumped Vulture

3. Forest Owlet

4. Himalayan Quail

a) 1,2            b) 1,2,3

c) 2,4            d) 1,2,3,4             


114. Growing the succeeding crop when previous crop attend its maturity stage-or-sowing of the next crop immediately after the harvest of the standing crops. This method is called

a) Relay cropping

b) Specialised farming

c) Ranching

d) None of the above                  


115. I. In Synergetic Cropping the yields of both crops grown together are found to be higher than yield of their pure crops on unit area basis.

II. In Alley Cropping the Food crops grown in alleys formed by hedgerow intercropping.

a) I correct            b) II correct

c) Both correct       d) Both wrong      


116. Which cropping method provides fodder during dry period in semi arid region of India?

a) Alley cropping

b) Synergitic cropping

c) Double cropping

d) Multi cropping                 


117. Find the right pairs on Sustainable development models.

1. Coppy-catting - Japan

2. Piggy backing -  India

3. Leap frogging - China

a) 1,2

b) 2,3

c) 1,3



118. Ecological pyramid will always results in upright pyramid for any ecosystem. It is

a) Pyramid of number

b) Pyramid of Biomass

c) Pyramid of Energy

d) Only (a) & (b)                 


119. Integrated Processing Development Scheme (IPDS) aimed at addressing the environmental concerns faced by

1)Common Effluent Treatment Plant

2) Infrastructure such as storm water management, necessary roads and pipelines for water & wastewater

3) Captive power generation on technology preferably renewable/green technology

4) Textile industry

5) Facility for testing R&D centres

a) 1,2,3

b) 2,3,4

c) 1,2,3,4

d) 1,2,3,4,5                 


120. As per the  2013 ‘Threatened Bird’ list by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Great Indian Bustard is  listed under the category of

a) Vulnerable                                                         


c) Critically Endangered


d) Extinct