MODERN INDIA GENERAL STUDIES PRELIMNS
1.Shakespeare termed India as a land of ‘great opportunities’. Hegel called India as the ‘land of desires’. Until 15th Century there were three trade routes only. First route to Caspian and Black Seas through Central Asia; Second to Mediterranean Sea through Syria. Third route to Egypt via Red Sea. But in 1453 with the conquest of Constantinople by Turkish all the routes were closed.
2.Portugese: Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on 20.5.1498 and Zamorin King welcomed him. This new Sea route via ‘Cape of Good Hope’ and discovery of America were termed as two greatest by Adam Smith. He again came in 1502. First Governor was Fransiscl Almedia. In 1509 Alfonso d’ Albuyquerque came to India as Portuguese Governor and captured Goa from Bijapur in 1510. Capital transferred from Cochin to Goa in 1530 by by Nino- da cuncha,. Lost Hoogli in 1631 to Shajahan.1661 Bombay given Royal dowry toCharles II for marrying Catherine. But they could not continue in India due to religious intolerance and piracy. They taught us tobacco cultivation. Goa freed in 1961
3.Dutch – In 1595 Dutch merchants started going to India They formed Dutch East India Company(VOC) in 1602. They established a few trading depots at Surat, Cambay, Ahmedabad.Lost to British in 1759 in the battle of Bedara 1759.
4.East India Company – It was originally known as Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and Queen Elizabeth I granted royal charter on 31.12.1600. The first Governor was Thomas Smith and Groups were known as ‘Merchant Adventurers’. Hawkins was given 400 manasabs by Jahangir. In 1615 James I sent his Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of Jahangir. First they started factory at Surat, in 1633 at Musulipattam. Fort St. George was constructed in 1640 and a factory was opened at Bangalore in 1642.
a) Got madras in 1639 from Raja of Chandagiri and Fort St George
b). In 1661 Bombay was received as royal dowry from Portuguese for marrying their Princess Catherine Braganza with Charles II. The Company got it from the King in 1668 for an annual rent of 10pounds.
c) In 1715 three villages Sutanati, Kalikota and Govindpur got by Hamiltongained firman in 1717 called magna carta of the company.
5) Danes: Came in 1616 Coy- Tarangampadi- Serambore capital.Sold all settlements to British in 1845.
6) French: 1664 company- First factory at Suratr and machilipattinam- First governor wasFrancois Martin- Dupliex powerful and Carnatic Wars.
7.Carnatic War French were the last to come – a.First war 1745 to 1748 – due to capture of French ship by Barmett and Duplleix opposed it . Fought at St, Thome and French won. However end of war of Austria also ended this war and Madras was given to English.
b.Second war 1749-54. French supported Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib. French lost and Arcot was captured by Clive. Chanda Sahib executed.
c.Third War – Outbreak of seven years war in Europe and Capture of Chandra Nagoor by Clive led to the War.
8.Battle of Plassey 1757 – Between Siraj-ud-daula and British – British won and it paved a way for British Monarchy of Bengal – marked beginning of drain of wealth from India to Britain.
9.Battle of Buxar 1764 – Between Munro and Mir Quasim, Shuja-ud-daula and Shah Alam II. British won and became defacto rulers of Bengal.
10.Anglo Maratha War. a.First 1775-1782 – defeated of Britain. b.Second – 1803-1805c.Third – 1817-1818.
1.Political and other Conditions Generally it was fluid and past deteriorating. Disintegration of Mughal Empire, Growth of Marathas and Peshwas and rise of autonomous states and foreign invasions were the salient future. Women were treated badly and were victims of Saty, Child marriage, Infanticide, Purdha (both muslims and higher caste Hindus wore it) and Devadasi system in Orissa and Tamil Nadu.
2.Disintegration of the Mughal Empire
I.It started with death of Aurangzeb in 1707. During Shah Alam II its boundary shrink from ‘Alam to Palam’ - Red Fort to Village.
II.Three sons of Aurangzeb fought a.Muhammad Muazzam was first son called Bahadur Shan I – captured power and prevented demolitions of temples. He was called Shah-I-Bekhabar b.Second son was Muhammad Azam and was killed c. Third son was Kam Bakhas who was favourites to his father and was called ‘Deen Panah’ (Saviour of the religion)
III.In 1712 Jahandar Shah came to throne with the support of Zulfikar Khan. He did away Jaziya tax. He honoured Rana Jai Singh of Amer as ‘Sawai’.
IV.He was killed by Farrukh Siyar with the help of Saiyid brothers and he rulled from 1713-1719. Saiyid brothers were Abdulla Khan and Hussain Ali Khan. Who were known as ‘king makers’.
V.After death of Siyar, two princes Rafi-ud-Darajat and Daula came to throneand finally Muhammad Shah rulled Delhi from 1719-1748. HENCE DURING 1719 THERE WERE FOUR MULSIMS RULERS.
vi.After death of Muhammad Shah his son Ahmad Shah ruled for six years from 1748-1754. During his period Ahmad Shah Abdali raided India several times.
VII.Hence Aziz-ud-din came to throne and was called Alamgir II. His successors were Shah Alam II 1759-1806, Akbar Shah II 1806-1837 and Bahadur Shah II 1837-1857.
VIII.There were many manasabs in the Mughal Court. They were Irani from Iran, Turani from Central Asia, Afgan and Hindustani. Saiyid brothers were Hindustani. If Saiyid brothers continued they would have succeeded in establishing frank and powerful Government.
I.After Ahahuji Raja Ram came to throne. II.Shahiji was released by Bahadur Shah I. III.Civil War between Shahuji and Tara Bai widow of Rajaram. IV.Shahuji appointed Balaji Vishwanath as first Peshwa which was hereditary. Second Peshwa was Baji Rao and third was Balaji Baji Rao and last was Baji Rao II. Their seat of power was Poona. They own many baters but lost the crucial third batter of Panipat. Even though they own Hydrabad in 1760.
4.Rice of Autonomous Statesa.Awadh – Saadat Khan established. He was also called Burhan-ul-Mulk. He joint hands with Nadir Shah and later committed to suicide. Safdarjand and Shuja-ud-Daula were prominent rulers.
b.Bengal in 1700 – Murshid Quli Khan became Diwan of Bengtal.
c.Hydrabad Nisamk-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah found it in 1724 and found Asafjahi dynasty. It entered with subsidiary alliance of Britian.
d.Mysore – I.Haider Ali associated with first two An glo Mysore Wars and killed in second war. First he was appointed as Faujdar of Dindigul. First war (1767-1769) – He conquered Malabar and Coorg. Second Anglo war 1780-1784 and he died in 1782.
II.Tipu Sultan – Ruled from 1782-1799. His attempt to remove commander of Bednur was vital. During his period treaty of Mangalore find after second war and he withdrew from Carnatic. In 1787 he proclaimed himself as kPadshah. Third Anglo Mysore war 1790-1792 and jktreaty of Seringapattam and he paid three crore rupees. Fourth war 1799 and Tipu was killed. He sent Ambassador to Foreign Country
e.Kerala – Started by King Martanda Verma. In 1805 Travancore joind subsidiary alliance with Britain.
f.Rajput – Sawai Jai Singh built Jaipur. He was expert in Geometry, Trignometry and Sanskrit.
g.Sikhs – He started with Guru Nanak Dev. Guru Gobind Singh was the 10th and last Guru and he formed Sikh Khalsa with 12 Sikh confederations (misls). Ranjit Singh was Ch8ief of Misls.
h.Assam – It was also known as Kamrup and Pragjyotishpur. They resisted all foreign invasions.
5.Foreign Invasions – a. Nadir Shah – Persian ruler whose father was Shepherd. In 1738 he conquered Kandhar. In 1739 he invaded India and fight at Karnal. He defeated Nadir Shah. He took seventy crore rupees and also peacock throne built by Shah Jahan and famous Kohinoor diamond. b.In 1747 Nadir Shah was assassinated. Ahmad Shah Abdali became ruler and invaded seven times India and looted many properties. His significant win was third battle of Panipat, which was fifth invasions in which he defeated Marathas in 1761 under Baji Rao I. Even to day there is a memorial at Panipat in honour of Marathas soldiers who were killed.
THE BRITISH ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA (1757-1857)
-Until 1765, the East India Company was basically a trading concern.
Cornwallis first Governor General established a regular police force on the British pattern in India.
The Supreme Court held its proceedings on the basis of English laws. The Sadar Diwani and Sadar Nizamat Adalats (Criminal) operated on the basis of Indian laws.
The first Law Commission constituted to codify and improve rules and regulations was framed Indian Penal Code (IPC) which came into effect in 1860.
Warren Hastings established a Board of Revenue to improve the system of revenue administration. .
In 1854, Sir Charles Wood sent a comprehensive dispatch on education to the Government of India in which the issues regarding the establishment of departments of public instructions in five provinces of the Company, promotion of western education in English and Indian languages and the pattern of grants in aid to encourage private participation in the field of education were recommended.
Despatch recommended the establishment of one University each in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, on the Model of the London University. In 1857 the three Universities were established on the basis of Wood’s recommendation.
In July 1856, J.P.Grant, a member of the Governor General’s Council tabled a bill supporting widow remarriage was passed on 13 July 1856 and came to be called the Widow Remarriage Act 1856.
In 1846 the minimum marriageable age for a girls was only 10 years. In 1891, through the enactment of the Age of Consent Act, this was raised to 12 years.
In 1930, through the Sharda Act, the minimum age was raised to 14 years.
After independence, the limit was raised to 15 and 18 years, respectively in 1948 and 1978.
Equal rights were given to men and women only after independence through the 1956 Right to Hindu Inheritance of Property Act to own property.
In 1917, the issue of women franchise was taken up in relation to the elections for the Provincial Councils, Municipalities and other local self-governing bodies. Prominent women leaders of this time like Sarojini Naidu, Meera Behn, Masturba Gandhi and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur played significant roles in this regard.
The Government of India Act of 1935 granted limited franchise to the Indian women.
Mahatma Gandhi brought out a paper, the Harijan, and also organized the Harijan Sevak Sangh. The Ryotwari settlement was introduced mainly in Madras, Berar, Bombay and Assam.
In 1833, the Mahalwari settlement was introduced in the Punjab, the Central Provinces and parts of north western provinces (Present UP)
. Kutch, Sind and Punjab were known for manufacturing arms; Kolhapur, Satara, Gorkhpur, Agra, Chittor and Palaghat had earned a reputation for their glass industries.Despite enjoying fame in the world, the Indian handicraft industry had begun to decline by the beginning of the 18th century.
1. It was a land mark in Indian history. It was termed as first war of Independence by Savarkar. But ridiculed as Sepoy Mutiny by British as only a part of central India participated in it. Any way it was starting point against British Rule. Had it succeeded, there would has been a different chapter in the History of India.
2. Previous Mutinies – Bengal 1764, Vellore 1806, 47th Regiment 1824 and 34th, 22nd, 66 and 37 native infantry in 1844, 1849, 1850 and 1852.
3. Reasons for the Revolt- It can be divided into individual Reasons and social, Economic, political and administrative Reasons
4. Individual Reasons
a) Grievance of Native Rulers – Doctrine of Lapse – Annexation of Awadh abolition of titles. Successor of Bahadur Shah would be known as princes.
b) Grievance of Sepoys – Para 2 above c)Grievance of Orthodox and conservative people – Domination of Christian missionary- abolition of Sati, widow remarriage act, protection of converts from Hinduism 1856
d)Grievance of crafts man, peasants and Zamindars Village and crap destroy, Zamindars affected by permanent settlement and strict collection of Revenue
5. Economic Causes – Heavy Taxation Borrowed from Money lenders – drain of wealth – Destruction ofvillage industries and crafts manship and permanent settlement
b) Political Cause – Subsidiary Allowance, doctrine of lapse
c) Social Cause – Conversion, Sati, Widow Re-marriage
d) Administrative Cause: Corruption
6) Immediate cause – Introduction of New Enfield Rifle in January 1867 with Greased Cartridge with fat of Cows and Pigs – Sepoys of 19th N.I. at Berhampur disobey on 26.02.1957 and Mangal Pandey of 34 N.I. at Barakpur started it.
7. Courses of Revolt
a) Beginning 10.05.1957. Sepoy at Merut started – British tried to control by declaring Bahadur Shah as Emperor of India – No effect – Massacre of British Civil Military Officers.
b) Spread – to various Places as detailed below.
c)Centres, leaders and suppression
I. Delhi – Bahadur Shah II – Arrested and deported to Rangoon
II Kanpur – Nana sahib, Tantiatope – Killed at Gwaliar III Lucknow – Begum of Awadh – defeated Bihar - Kunwar Singh
IV Jansi – Rani Lakshmi Bai – She Captured Gwaliar – Lost later
8. Reasons for failure : a) Only Central region participated
b) Un Sympathetic attitude and Hostility of many native rulers seek non participation by Bengal, Punjab, Bombay, Madras c) Hostility of Money lenders and Merchants
e) Weakness of Revolters f)Strong British
9) Hindu Muslim unity factor – First time Witnessewd –Accepted Bahadur Shah – Sentiment of Both respected – Ban on Cow slaughter ordered – Both Hindu and Muslim were included in main positions .
Conclusion: It was not successful due to factors mentioned above – yet it was starting point. It was more than Sepoy- Mutiny – Due to these there was major transformation in British policy- Try divide and rule by provoking Muslims. Above all company’s rules ended.
1) First Carnatic War- 1745-48-Austrian War cause- Nawab ofCarnatic supported British but lost- Victory forFrench- difference between Dupleix andLa Bourdaunaris- Treaty of
Aix.La Chapple- Madras given back-Proved superiority of foreign army over Large local Army
2) Second Carnatic War-1749-54-Originally Dupleix,Chanda Sahib, and Nasir Jung joined and defeated Md Ali in the battle of AMBUR..later Marathas, Tanjore and British supported him and Capture ofArcot by Clive- French influence restricted toHyderabad.
3) Thir CarnaticWar- 1758-63-Capture of Chandernagore by Clive and more British army at Bengal- Battle of Wandiwasi1760 and defeat of Lallyat Eyre Coteled- Treaty of Paris- ended French ambitionin India.
4)Battle of Plassey: 1757-Why Bengal-Siraj ud dowla and Mir jafar and Mir Kasim- Wanted to overthrow- Clive entered and defeated
5) Battle of Buxar-1764 Mir Kasim shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Monghyer-Vansitrat andMir Kasim-Lost- Shah alam became puppet.
6) Anglo Mysore War1 : 1767-69: Haider Ali+Nizam+French- Vs English- Hyder won- Treaty of madras
7) Anglo Mysore –1780-84War2:Hyder+ Nizam+Marathas Hyder killed- Treaty ofMangalore-
8) Third War: 1790-92- TipuVsEnglish-Nizam and Marathas- Tipu lost- Treatyof Seerangapattinam-Tipu helped Hindus- Temple- coin-Foreign embassy
9) Fourth War: 1799-Tipu- Vs English- Tipu killed
10) First Anglo maratha War: 1775-1782- Sawai Madhava Rao vs English with Ragnath Rao- Treaty of Salabi-20 yearspeace
11) SecondAnglo Maratha War: 1803-05- Baji Rao II- Treaty of Bassein
12) Third War- 1817-1818Lasr PeshwaNanaSahib dethroned and sent to Kanpur- satara captured by British
13)First Anglo Sikh War- 1843-46-4 battles ended with Treaty of Lahore and Sikhs ceded Jullundur to British- Treaty of Bhairowal- Duleep singh made King by British
14) Second Anglo sikh War: 1848-49- To suppress revolt of Mulraj- Annexation of Punjab in 1849- DuleepSingh pensioned off to England
15) First Afghan War- 1839-42- Forward Policy of Lord Auckland
16) Second War 1878-1880- Lytton’s Forwardpolicy led to the war
17) Burmese Wars
a) First- 1824-26 b) Second- 1852 c) 1885- Lord dufferin.
18) Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816) over Nepal’s southward and Britain’s northward expansion in India. Although the British defeated Nepal, they were so impressed by the Gurkha fighters that they enticed them to enter the British (and subsequently, Indian) army. The Gurkhas, known for carrying razor-sharp curved knives called kukris,
1. 19th Century witnessed New vision – Also called renaissance. Impact of British Rule, Religious superstition, Boredom with religious movements social conditions, Caste factor raising of nationalism and democracy LED TO REFORMS.
2. Social base –Emergence of Middle Class and Western Educational intellectual – through renaissance, Re-formation and enlightenment
b) Ideological base – Nationalism, Religiosm , Universalism, Humanism and secularism. Authority in religion was given up and truth in religion was searched. Universal theism of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Social Reform movements played important role. Movements like Brahma Samaj, Pradhana Samaj, Aligarh movements which were reformed and Arya Samaj, Deoband which were revivalist played important role
3. Social Reform
a) Social equality and equal worth of individuals which were humanistic and idealist had major impact. Originally it was integral part of Religious Reform. But later on adopted secular approach. Originally upper caste followed; later lower strata of society also followed. Various organisation and individuals also played important role. Languages played important rule and Drama, Poetry and press spread their use. Broadly Social Reform had 2 point Agenda
(i) Betterment status of Woman in Society (ii) Removing caste inequalities
4. Betterment of Woman
a) Abolition of Sati – Raja Ram Mohan Roy- 1829 Bengal Presidency abolished and from 1830 Madras and Bombay presidency
b) Female Infanticide – Prevalent among upper class Bengalis and Rajputs. Bengal regularisation 1795, 1804 declared infanticide has equivalent to Murder and Act 1870 made compulsory Registration of Birth. Widow Remarriage Brahmo Samaj had the issue in its agenda.
c) Widpw Remarriage But Eswar Chandra Vidhaya Sagar (1822-1891) Principal of Sanskrit College at Calcutta was instrumental in passing Act of 1856. Vishnurajagiri Pandit founded Widow remarriage association in 1850. V. Bandulu made in Madras. Karve marriage a widow in 1893 and became Secretary of Widow remarriage association and opened a home in Pune. Set up Indian woman university at Bombay in 1916.
d) Child marriage
First prohibited in 1872through Native Marriage Act. But limited as not applicable to Hindus and Muslims- through age of Consent act 1891. marriage age was raised to 12. Other acts to be noted.
e) Education of Woman
Christian Missionary in 1819. Vidhyasagar was associated with 35 Girls School in Bengal-. Iin 1914 Woman Medical Service. Trained Nurses and Midwife. Karreys Indian Woman University 1916 – Laid Harding Medical College in Delhi.
f) Participation in the Swadeshi and acted participation and human rule moments were new openings and woman faced lathis and Bullets and imprisonment – later they took part in Trade union. Later elected to legislative/ Local bodies.
Sarojini Naidu became president of Indian National Congress 1925 and First Governor of United Provinces of India Woman Conference 1927.
g) Various legislative measures in India after Independence to be analysed.
5) Struggle against Caste-Based Exploitation.
a) Various Castes –Chaturvarnashrama – Caste determined who could get education, ownership, profession, dress, food etc.,
b) Factors which reduced caste Regidities.
i) Creation of Private property in land ii) New Industries and Opening of New Economy
iii) Equality before law Iv) Judicial functions of caste Panchayats taken away
v)Education and Recruitment open to all vi) Social Reform Movements
viii) Congress Government did work for upliftment of the depressed Classes like free education for Harijans etc.,
ix) Gandhiji founded All India Harijan Sangh in 1932
x)Government of India act 1935 which clear representation.
xi)Jyotiba Phule and Ambedkar who opened All India Schedule Caste Federation in 1942 xii) Other self respect movement.
xiii) New Constitution and Directive Principles.
6) Various Organisations
Brahmo Samaj – Raja Ram Mohan Ray founded – called father of Indian Renaissance –
He Translated Vedas and Upanishads and he set up Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta in 1814. He wrote Precepts of Jesus in 1820. He was a linked between east and west culture. He knew more than 12 languages. Practice against Sati. He supported David Hare to found Hindu College in 1815 in 1825. He established a Vedanta College.
b)Maharishi Debendranath Tagore – Father of Tagore – Succeeded Roy – He also found Tattvabodhini Sabha in 1839.
In 1866 the Brahmo Samaj was split into the Brahmo Samaj of India headed by Keshav Chandra Sen and the Adi Brahmo Samaj, which remained under the guidance of Devendranath Tagore
Brahmo Samaj aimed at 5 principles .
i) It denouonced polytheism and idol worship
ii)It discarded faith in divine avataras (incarnation)
iii)It denied that any scripture could enjoy the status of ultimate authority transcending human reason and conscience
iv) It took no definite stand on the doctrine of karma and transmigration of soul and left it to individual Brahmos to believe either way v) It criticised the caste system
K.C. Sen found in Bombay – Paramhansa Sabha founded in 1849.
d) Young Bengal Movement – Radical, intellectual trend among the youth under Henry Derozio started. He got inspiration from French Revolution. He was called first nationalist poet of modern India.
In 1849, he founded the Bethune School at Calcutta. The main aim of this school was to encourage female education.
He was Principal of Sanskrit College 1850 and open it to admit non brahmins. Introduced western thought in Sanskrit College, Secretary of Bethune School 1849. Started Movement in support of Widow remarriage. remarriage.
f)B.C. Chatterjee: The eminent Bengali novelist as well as the composer of the famous national song Bande Mataram, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838-1894) aroused a new consciousness in the 19th century Bengali society.
In 1872, he started the publication of a monthly magazine under the title Banga Darshan from Behrampur.His novel is Anand Math
h) Social Service Leaque – Narayana Malhoth Joshi founded in Bombay. He also founded All India Trade Union Congress in 1920.
i) Ramakrishna Movement – Started to propagate Bakthi – Yoga by Ramakrishna Pramahamsa (1834-86) – Vocation Priest of Kali Temple in Dakshineshwar. He taught salvation by renunciation, mediation and Bakthi. He said all Gods are same though names are different. (Mutt) founded by Ramakrishna.
j) Vivekananda (1862-1902) – Known as Narendira Nath Datta – Found Ramakrishna Mission in 1897 with Headquarters at Belur. Vivekananda used technology at modern type in the service of mankind. His famous speech at Chicago in 1893 is world famous. He never gave any political message. He was considered as spiritual father of the Modern National Movement.Subhas Chandra Bose regarded him as the founder of modern India who possessed the heart of Buddha and the intellect of Shankaracharya. Tagore ‘He is genius of creation.
k)Dayananda Saraswathi – Dayananda founded the Arya Samaj inm Bombay on 10 April 1875 based on a set of 28 principles of Lahore.
His famous wok was Sathiyach Prakash. He gave the slogan back to Veda – Revival of Vedic learning. He was against Orthodoxy, Caste, Untouchablity and Polytheism. He supported Cheturvarma - Man not born in any caste but according to occupations he followed. It prescribes marriageable age as 25 and 16. He started Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) School first at Lahore in 1886. He gave ten principles.
l) Seva Sadhan - Started by Parsi Chromji. Malabari. It took care of women and their welfare.
m)Dharma Sabha. Radha Khan Beg founded in 1830.
n) Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paribalana – Ezahavas of Kerala – 1902 - Admission, Appointment, Assess to temple and Political representations.
o) Vokkaliga Sangam – Launched in1905 in Mysore.
p) Justice Movement – D.N. Mudaliar, T.M.Nair and Sri Thiyakaraja to secure jobs and representations for non-Brahmin. In 1917 Madras Presidency Association was found.
q) Self Respect Movement started by E.B.R. in 1920.
r)Aravippuram Movement in 1988 on the occasion of Sivarathiri by Narayana Guru to install ideal of Shiva.
s)Temple Entry Movement – Narayana Guru – Kumaran and T.K.Madhavan – in 1924 Vaikom Sathya Giraha of Kesava wanted
opening Hindu Temple to untouchables – Jothas in Punjab.
t) Indian National Conference founded by M.G. Ranadate in 1887 at Madras.
u) Theosophical Movement – Madam Blagalsky and Thomas Alcott founded in 1875 at USA. In 1882 Shifted Headquarters to Adyar. Believed special relationship could be established between God and Soul by prayer revelation et
v)Annie Besant became President in 1907 after the death of Alcot. She came to India in 1893 and laid foundation of Central Hindu College in Banaras in 1898. It became Banaras Hindu University in 1916.
separate peoples and increased communal consciousness. v) Historical process of evolution of composite culture arrested to some extent.
INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
* Founded by 1885 by A.O. Hume.
* Venue of 1st Session – Gokul Tejpal Sanskrit School of Bombay.
* First President – W.C. Banerjee. * First Women President – Annie Besant (1917 Calcutta). * First Indian Women President – Sarojini Naidu.(1925, Kanpur)
* First English President – George Yule * First Muslim President – Badaruddin Tayabji* Women President – Annie Besant (1917), Sarojini Naidu (1925) and Nalin Sengupta. * Thrice President (Maximum times) – Dadabhi Naoroji (1886,1863,1906), J.L. Nehru (1929, 1936, 1937).
* First Session to hold in village – 1937 (Fazipur). * First split of congress – 1907 (Surat). * First – Joint Session of Congress and Muslim League Lucknow (1916).
* Word Swaraj was first used from congress platform (1906) Calcutta.
* Only session presided over by Gandhi – Belgaon (1924).
* Complete Independence was demand for the first time (1929), Lahore.
* For the first time National Song was sung in the Calcutta Session (1896) of INC. i.e., Vande Mataram * For the first time National Anthem (Jana Gana Mana ) Was sung in Calcutta session (1911) of INC.
* Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was the youngest president of Inc.
* The first session of congress (Bomaby 1885) was attended by 72 representatives.During the fourth session of INC (1888, Allahabad) emphasized was given on formation of its constitution. * Nagpur Session (1891) the word ‘National’ was added to Congress. * Poona session(1895), representatives second time discussed on the formation of its constitution.
* Calcutta session of 1906, its president for the first time used ‘ Swaraj’ in his speech. * In Lucknow Session of Congress (1916) the two factions of congress (extremists and Moderates) reunited.
* During Ahmedabad Session of INC (1921) , C. R. Das was elected its President but Azamal Khan presided over the session because C.R. Das was in prison.
* During Gaya Session (1922 ) differences arose over the issue of council entry. C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru organized Swaraj Party in 1922.
* During its Delhi session (1923) INC decided to establish All India Khadi Borad.
* Gandhi presided over only Belgaon session (1924) of INC.
* During this session knowledge of weaving was fixed as minimum qualification for its members. Gandhi decide to set up ‘All India Charkha Association declared 1926’ as year of keeping silent.
* During Guwahati session of Inc (1926) wearing Khadi was made compulsory for its workers.
* During Madras session of INC 91927), proposals for independence and to boycott Simon commission were passed. Gandhi did not participate.
* During Karachi Session (1931) Fundamentals Rights and Economic Policy Proposals Passed.
* During its 1932 and 1933 session government had declared it an illegal organization.
* During Lucknow Session (1936), J.L. Nehru explained socialism for the first time. * During Fazipur Session (1937) congress decided to take part in election of 1937. * 1938 session of congress held in a village Haripura.Netaji elected unopposed. * In Ramgarh Session (1904) decisions on Individual Satyagarha.
* The word “Congress” Or INC was taken from the history of USA which means group of people. * While Britishers tried to use congress as a safety valve, Indian leaders tried to use it as ‘lightening conductor,”* During Tripuri Session Of INC (1939) Subhash Chandra Bose Defeated Pattabhi Sitaramaya(Gandhi’s candidate in presidential election) but later resigned and Rajendra Prasad became its president.* During Calcutta Session (1928) first All India Youth congress was established.* During Delhi session (1918) along with S.N. Banerjee many liberals resigned from INC.
IMPORTANT SESSIONS OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
Womesh Chandra Banerjee
Sir William Wederburn
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Ambika Charan Majumdar
Smt. Annie Besant
Lala Lajpat Rai
Smt. Nalini Sengupta
Subash Chandra Bose
Subash Chandra Bose
J.B.Kriplani- On Independence
Pattabhi Sita Ramaiya
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENTS ( 1885 -1905)
1. Commonly the period between 1885-1905 is known as the period of moderates or of moderate nationalism.
2. The moderate leaders of the Congress belonged to the educated middle class. They held the belief that the English were basically truthful and just.Banerjee, Naoroi, Mehta, SN banerjee, Tyabi, Dutta, Gokale were known as moderates
3. In its very first session the moderates asked for reform in the Indian Council. They also asked for the abolition of the post of Secretary of State for India and India Council.
4. The moderates laid great emphasis on the question of appointing Indians to high governmental posts.
5. In the beginning, the Congress paid no attention to agricultural matters, but in its fourth session they asked for a reduction and subsequent fixation of the land revenue.
6. In 1901 a demand for industrial expansion also began.
7. Under the leadership of William Digby, the Congress opened a branch in England in1888 and started publishing a magazine called ’India’.
8. In 1905, Gokhale had established the Servants of India Society. He had also rejected the title of knighthood and refused to accept a position in the Council of the Secretary of State for India.
9. In 1893 Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) arrived in hey city of Chicago in America with great difficulty, to attend the world Parliament of Religion. In the conference, he was given two minutes to speak on the very first day. It was in this year on November 16 that Annie Besant (1847-1933) arrived in India. The year 1893 was also important year in the life of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948). This was the year when he went to South Africa in connection with the trial of a Merchant, Abdullah Seth.
10. Lokmanya Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal (who are known in Indian History as the revolutionary trio) filled in the Indian people the ideas of self-respect, self-confidence, patriotism and courage and inspired the work for India’s independence.The above three and Aurobind Ghosh wereknown as Extremists.(Moderate Extremist split in sural Session 1907 and reunited in 1916 Session due to efforts of Annie Besant.From 1916 Extremists got upper hand.
11. Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) was popularly known as a ‘Lokamanya Tilak’. In reality he was the chief propagator of a new national consciousness in the country. Before Mahatma Gandhi no other leader matched his stature. He was born on 23 July 1856 at Ratnagiri in Maharastra. In 1881, he began his drive for new awakening by among the Indians publishing two newspapers i.e., the Maratha (English) and Kesari (Marathi). He participated in the Bombay session in 1889 for the first time and for the next thirty years he remained its main leader. By introducing the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi and Shivaji festivals he tried to bring the Indian society together and inspired patriotic feelings among the people. In 1906 he introduced two slogans ‘Swaraj is my birth right’ and ‘Our life and religion are useless without the attainment of Swaraj’. In 1908 and was sentenced to six years of imprisonment. The Britishers called him the ‘Father of Indian disaffection’ and the ‘biggest traitor’.
12. The second great leader in this category was Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928). He was also known as Sher-e-Punjab. He was born in village Dhoondke in Ferozepur district in Punjab on 28 January 1965. He encouraged the use of Hindi language in daily life. He was impressed by the ideas of Arya Samaj. He began his practice of Law in Hissar but soon he shifted to Lahore. He published a few newspapers like ‘The Punjabi’. Later he also published ‘The Pupil ‘in English. While demonstrating against the Simon Commission he was hit by a baton on the head and after a short while died on 17 November 1928. Lord Minto wrote that the Congress was very loyal but Lala Lajpat Rai was a very dangerous man.
13. The third member of the trio was Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932). He was born on 7 November 1858. He had come into contact with the Brahmo Samaj and had went to Central Europe and America as its spokesman. He started English weekly called ‘New India’. In 1907 he was tried for treason and was sent to jail.14. The period of Lord Curzon witnessed another terrible famine during 1899-1900. But he never paid any head to it and held a Royal Durbar in Delhi in 1903 in order to commemorate the coronation of Edward VII which was an expensive affair.
1. Reason: Curzon’s imperialist policy of ‘divide and rule’ manifested itself most glaringly in the partition pf Bengal. The reasons given were --The area and population of the Provinces of Bengal was too large. There was a problem of communication. Highways were not safe. The peasants of this province were a harassed lot.
2. But actually the cause behind the partition was much more political than administrative. Bengal was becoming the nerve centre of nationalist activities in India.
3. On 19 July 1905 the Government of India formally proposed the partition of Bengal. According to this proposal Chittagong, Rajshahi and Dacca were merged with Assam to form the new province.
4. The proposed area of the new province was fixed at 1 lakh 6 thousand 5 hundred 40 square miles and its population was 3 crore 10 lakh out of which the Muslims accounted for 1 crore 80 lakh and Hindus 1 crore 20 lakh.
5. Curzon announced the partition of Bengal on 16 October 1905. Sir Aurobindo’s Ghosh (1872-1950) played a prominent parting the nationalist movement of India. Particularly his contribution to the movement against the partition of Bengal was unparalleled. Sir Aurobindo left Baroda to work in the National College in Calcutta with a view to make education compatible to the national needs. The National College in Calcutta had been established on 14 August 1906. Sir Aurobindo’s second revolutionary contribution was the editing of the Bande Mataram paper. A series of seven articles published by Sir Aurobindo’s, between 11 and 23 April 1907 under the heading, ‘Doctrine of Passive Resistance’ in Bande Mataram became very popular. The Partition of Bengal infused a sense of nationalism among the Indians and also gave birth to the swadeshi movement which galvanized the masses against the partition of Bengal. Since 16 October 1905, the reactions against the partition of Bengal started taking shape. This day was observed as a ‘Black Day’. People took holy dip in the Ganga and kept vows. They also tied Rakhi in each other’s hand as symbol of unity.(Partition of Bengal was annulled in 1911 by Lord Hardine.)
1. Sir Sayyid was born in 1817 in Delhi. His father was an officer in the court of Muguals. He felt that the relations of the Muslims with the British should be improved and therefore he brought out a paper with the title of the ‘Loyal Muhammadans of India. He also inspired the Muslims to adopt the Western education and the Western mode of scientific thinking. He brought out an Urdu Paper with the title of ‘Tahaib-al-Akhlaq. In 1875 he found the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, which later grew into the Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. He opposed Polygamy, Purdah. William Graham wrote in the biography of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan. He also founded the ‘Patritotic Association’ with the assistance of Raja Shivprasad of Banaras. Another organization by the name Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association too was set up by him. He opposed it by calling it a Hindu organization.
2. Deoband Movement was founded by Maulanna Hussan Ahmad and Moulana Abul kalam Azad was associated with it. represented by Mohammad Qasim Nanautavi (1832-1880) and Rashid Ahamd Gangohi (1828-1916). Found the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madarsa at Deoband,
b) Wahabi Movement started by Shah Walliullah. Sayid Ahmad Khan found Aligarh Movement Ahmadia movement by Mirza gulamAhmad .Arhar movement by Mula Mohammad Ali in 19110.
3. Muslim League: The meeting of a Muslim delegation under the leadership of Aga Khan with Viceroys of India, Lord Minot at Shimla in October 1906 was very significant. Demands were for a separate electorate, more representations in the Legislative Assembly and government services the establishment of a Muslim University and provisions for Muslims representation in the Viceroy’s Council. Muslims leaders gathered at a meeting presided over by Nawab Wakar-ul-Mulk on 30 December 1906 at the invitation of the Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dacca. The All Indian Muslim League was the result of this conference. The Constitution of the League was prepared in 1907 at Karachi. Aga Khan became the President of the Muslim League. The objectives behind the formation of the Muslim League were to create a sense of loyalty among the Muslims towards the British Government, to safeguards the political and other rights of the Muslims, to represent the aspirations and sentiments of the Muslims interest and to appoint Sir Aga Kahn as the permanent President of the League,-first session at Amristar. League also supported the partition of Bengal.Nawab Salimullah of Dacca and Nawab Moshin ul Mulk were others who were involved in formation of League.
1. Two Brothers- Damodar and Balkrishna Chapekar began the process of revolutionary activities in India. They formed the ‘Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha’ in 1893 and started celebrating the birthday of Shivaji and Ganesh Utsavs.
2. In 1896-97 the Chapekar brothers had set up a gymnasium in Pune. The Famine Commissioner of the Pune, Rand and Lt. Ayrst was killed by them
3. The Savakar brothers (Ganesh, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Narayana Savakar), like the Chapekar brothers had been infused with a sense of patriotism since their very childhood.Savarkar was qualified as a barrister but for his patriotic stance he was neither decorated with its degree not was he given the degree of Bachelor Arts. Book (The Indian War of Independence) had been seiged by the British government before being published.He was perhaps the first individual who had set fire to foreign clothes. There he organized the New Indian Association. (The Indian House had been founded by Shyamji Krishna Verma). Savarkar was linked to the assacination of Jackson at Aurangabad. On 8 July 1910, he was arrested and then sent to India, by a ship. He was sentenced to imprisonment in Andaman between 1911-1924. In Bengal an organization by the name of Anushilan Samiti was founded. Barindra Kumar Ghose and Bhupendranath Dutta had started the paper Yugantar in 1906. A 15 year old youth, Khudiram Bose had been entrusted with the task of throwing the bomb at Kingsford District Judge of Muzzafarbur. vehicle. On August 11, 1908 Khudiram inspite of being a minor was hanged to death while his associate Prafulla Chaki shot himself. Lala Hardayal (1884-1938) had played an important role in the Gadar Movement and Basant Kumar Biwas were hanged whereas Ram Bihari Bose succeeded in feeling to Japan..
Ghadar party: Started by HarDayal and Sohar Singh Bhakna in 1913 at San Fransisco in North America and brought out a Urdu and Gurumukshi weekly viz Ghadar.During firstworld war moved to Germany and set up Indian Independence committee.
1906 - 1917
Four major resolutions i.e., Swaraj, Swadesh, Boycott of foreign goods and National education were passed in this session. ‘Morley-Minto Reforms’ (Act of 1909) were announced. Though the moderates did not welcome the reform, yet consented to assist in their implementation. Every effort was made in 1911 to make Aga Kahn preside over the incoming Congress Session at Bankipur. The 1912 Bankipur session was the shortest in duration during the entire history of the Congress. In total, 207 representatives had taken part in this session but not a single representative had come from the Muslim majority province of Punjab. To bring the Muslims closer the 1913 session of the Congress was held at Karachi under the president ship of Nawab Sayyid Muhammad Bahadur. Bahadur belonged to a lineage, which had familiar relations with that of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan. The moderates thought that Britain was fighting the War in the interest of democracy and after the war she will do something in this direction in India. Therefore the moderates decided to support the British with men and material. During her visit to Ireland in 1913, the Home Rule League there had suggested Annie Besant to launch a similar movement in India. On her return to India she had brought out a weekly paper by the name of ‘Common Will’ followed by a daily called ‘New India’. Both these papers had been used to demand Home Rule for India. The aim of the Home Rule Movement was to obtain for India a status equivalent to other colonies of the British Empire. In short the Home Rule Movement was neither entirely moderate nor was thoroughly revolutionary. A Home Rule League had been established by Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. Annie Besant herself was its President. The other prominent member of the League was Arundale, P.C. Ramaswamy Iyer and V.P. Wadia. By October 1916, around 500 branches of the league had come up in the country. The Congress had also passed a resolution in its 1915 Bombay session demanding Home Rule for India. Prior to the establishment of the Home Rule League by Annie Besant. It was Lokmanya Tilak who had set up a Home Rule League at Pune in April 1916. Both Annie Besant and Tilak had agreed to conduct this movement in cooperation with each other. The Home Rule Movement left a deep impact on Indian politics. Not only it revived the nationalist movement but also it made the Indian conscious of their rights. In 1915 the prominent leaders of the Congress viz. Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu and Madan Mohan Malaviya took part in the Muslim League Session. This session of the Muslim League was presided over by Muhammad Ali Jinnah; The session gave emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity. The Lucknow Pact was signed on the basis of an agreement in 1916.
* In 1887, Gandhi went to England for higher education and returned to India in 1892 after becoming a Barrister.
* In 1893 he went to South Africa – for a year – spent twenty two years in that country.
* He returned to India on January 9 – NRI Day.
* Gandhi recorded his initial thoughts in 1909 in Hind Swaraj.
* Gandhi’s four preconditions – a) perfect chastity b) adopt poverty c) follow truth and d) cultivate fearless.
* Gandhi began his experiments with Satyagraha – Champaran in Bihar in 1917 – Indigo Planters.Committee of enquiry of which Mahatma Gandhi himself was made a member.
* The Committee of Enquiry recommended some measures to alleviate the miseries of the Indigo cultivators thereby bringing the Satyagraha to an end.
* The movement launched by the peasants at Kheda(1917) in Gujarat was another instance – Peasants not able to pay rent. Vallabhbhai Patel, who became one of the most active and dedicated followers of Mahatma Gandhi from Kheda.
* In 1918 the mill workers of Ahmedabad got into dispute – 35 Percent increases.
* Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political Guru (mentor).
* On 30th March 1919 it was decided to launch first nationwide hartal against Rowlatt Act which was called Black Law and which empowered arrest without reasons.. But, as the decision could not reach everywhere in the country, the date was postponed to 6 April
* Satyagarha Sabha – organized at Bombay – Hindu Muslim unity was seen.
* In Delhi – hartal – organized on 30 March 1919. * On April 1919 Gandhi – arrested.
* Jallianwala Bagh - 13 April – day of Baisakhi – Punjab as a special day to celebrate the harvesting season – Government proclaimed a ban.* At 4.00 p.m on the same day a public meeting was called – Jallianwala Bagh was not a garden – rather it was an open space near the Golden Temple in Amristar.At one point of time it was a personal property of a person named Jalli.
* General Dyre – when speakers reciting the poem ‘Fariyad’ –ordered troops to shoot at the crowd from the exit point.
* As per Government Report – 179 people were killed in the accident - according to the Congress Committee the number of people who died could around one thousand.
* An enquiry committee under the Chairmanship of Hunter was setup on 19 October 1919. The committee submitted its report after about a year on 26 May 1920.Some
* Called him as the ‘the defender of the British Empire’ and honored him with sword and an amount of 2,00,000 pound – Gandhi after this event the British lost the moral authority to rule over India – Rabindranath Tagore renounced knight hood titles as a mark of protest.
* Khilafat – Sultan of Turkey was regarded as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims all over the worlds – a movement to express the Muslim support for the Caliph of Turkey against the allied powers, particularly Britain.
* Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. M.A. Ansari, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, Maulvi Abdulbari (Lucknown), Hakin Ajmal Khan and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.
* On October 1919, he whole country had observed the Khilafat day – Committee had been formed in September 1919. – March 1920 committee under the leadership of Maulanan Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali was also sent to England.
* British Government – signed Treaty of Tibers on 10 August 1920 – Turkey was partitioned – Sultan was made a prisoner and sent to Constantinople.
* On 1, August 1920, in a communication to the governor General, Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin non-cooperation with the Government as a sequel to the Rowlat Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat movement.
* Gandhi’s plan was approved by the Indian national congress in a special session at Calcutta in December 1920.C.R.Das opposed it.
* Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant and Bipin Chandra Pal were not in agreement with the congress declaration of non-cooperation and, thus they left the Congress.
Features of Non Cooperation: Boycott of Law Courts, foreign clothes, establishment of panhayattis, promotion of Khadi.Prince of Walesboycotted in Nov 1921 during his visit.
* The Khilafat meeting in Malabar incited so much of communal feelings among the Muslims peasants (The Moplahs) that it took an anti-Hindu turn in July 1921 – Moplah rebellion.
* On 5 February an agitated crowd gheraoed the police station at Chauri chaura in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh and set fire it. Twenty two policemen including the station officer died in the incident.
*Gandhi announced the suspension of the movement.
Revolutionary movements :
Kakori Robbery: * Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil occupies a special place. He published book with the title ‘How did America get Freedom’ and a pamphlet with the heading ‘A Message for the countrymen’ * On 9, August 1925 when the money sent by the government from Saharnpur to Lucknow by train was looted at the Kakori railway station. In December 1927, on the charges of conspiracy, Ram Prasad bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan singh and Ashfaquallah Kahn were hanged.
* Ashfaqualah Khan was the first Muslim revolutionary of India to be hanged for the sake of the country’s freedom.
Saunder’s Murder and Central hall Bomb throwing: * On 9, June 1931 Harishen was hanged on the grievous charges of murder. Sardar Bhagat Singh born in Banga in Layalpur district – found the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926.
* Lala Lajpat Rai owing to a police lathi charged led by Saunders was taken as a national humiliation and the later was assassinated on 17 December 1928.
* Bhagat Singh in the mean time had left Lahore in disguise. He had also participated in the congress Session at Calcutta in 1928 – he chose the Central legislative Assembly at Delhi as his targets * The throwing of the bomb in the Assembly on 8 April 1929 by Bhagat Singhand Batukeshwar Dutt shook up the whole country into a new enthusiasm – Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
Swaraj party- Pro and No Changers: * The leaders of the congress were spilt into two groups. The first group comprised of those who wanted a change in the programme of the Congress and in reality did not approve the Non-Cooperation Movement. Prominent among such leaders were Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das and Motilal Nehru, who were called ‘pro-changers’.
* The other groups consisted of those members who supported the non-cooperation movement and retained full faith in the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. This group came to be known as ‘no-changers’. Prominent among the no-changers were C.Rajagopalachari and Dr. M.A. Ansari.
* In March 1923, Chittaranjan Das along with Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at Allahabad to take parting November 1923 council elections.
* Elections – in November 1923 – Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party whereas in Bengal the party was headed by Chittranjan Das.
* Simon Commission – the act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. Thus, such a review was due in 1929.
* The Conservative Party appointed the review commission two years ahead of its schedule, in 1927.
* Simon commission after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon – all its seven members were Englishmen, the Commission was also called the ‘White men Commission’.
* There were no Indian member in it, the Commission faced a lot of criticism – all the political parties including the Congress, the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League decided to oppose the Commission tooth and nail – 3 February 1928 when the Commission reached Bombay.
* At Lahore the student took out a large anti-Simon commission - LalaLajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge ordered by Saunders, assistant superintendent of Police of Lahore. As a result of which he passed away after one month – His last words, “Every blow on my body will prove a nail in the coffin of the British Empire.
* With the sole exception of a few members of the Muslim League, the rulers of the Princely States and zamindars, all political parties and the sections of the Indian people opposed the Simon Commission – report published in May 1930 – Dyarchy was unsuccessful – recommended special powers to Governor General at the centre and Governors at the Provinces.
* Indians rejected the Simon commission report out of Hand as it did not mention anything in regard to conferring the Dominion Status – Simon Commission’s report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act 1935.]
* Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, while delivering a speech on the floor of the British Parliament challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution.
* The Report published by this Committee in July 1928 came to be known as the ‘Nehru Report’.
* Muslim League – Central Sikh League, Sardar Kharak Singh also rejected it – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. M.A. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Kahn supported it. * Jinnah, thereafter convened an All Indian conference of the Muslims where he drew up a list of fourteen point demand.
* Nehru Report was approved by a majority vote in the annual session of the Congress held in Calcutta on 2 December 1928, an ultimatum was served on the British government to accept the Report by 31 December 1929.
* Poorna Swaraj-The annual session of the congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. The place where this session was held was named as the Lajpat Rai Nagar.
* Dandi March – Gandhi reached the coast of Dandi on 5 April 1930 after marching a distance of 200 miles with 78 handpicked followers and on 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws.
* On 9 April, Mahatma Gandhi laid out the programme of the movement which included making of salt in every village in violation of the existing salt laws; picketing by women before the shops selling liquor, opium and foreign clothes; organizing the bonfires of foreign clothes; spinning clothes by using charkha; fighting untouchability; boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people.
* Many Muslims kept themselves aloof from this movement – northwest Frontier Province an organization of Khudai Khidmatgar (Servants of God) was formed under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Most of the volunteers donned red clothes, because of which they came to be known as the Red Shirts.
* The khudai Khidmatgars accepted the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and participated in the movement in full measures.
* The government had to send a detachment of the 18th Royal Garhwal Rigles to suppress this movement. But as the Garhwali soldiers refused to open fire on the unarmed people, the government pressed the air force into action.
* Round table conference – first such conference held on 12 November 1930 at London, failed to resolve he communcal question as it was boycotted it by the Congress.First civil disobedience movement –Gandhi put 11 demands including cut in military expenses, total prohibition,release of political prisoners etc,.
* On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was singed. As per this pact Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not like this pact.
* On 7 September 1931, the Second round Table conference was held at London; Gandhi joined the Conference on 12 September but returned o India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence on the communal question.
* On 3 January 1932, the civil disobedience Movement was resumed. The government responded to it by arresting Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban of the Congress Party.
(Dr Ambedkar: * In July 1924 Ambedkar had organized a Bahishkrit hitkar Sabha (the Depressed Classes Institute) with the objective of raising the moral and material status of the untouchables.)
* Fist Round Table Conference he had demanded separate electorates for depressed.
* On 16 August 1932, British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald made an announcement, which came to be as the ‘communcal Award’.
* According to this award the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them.
* Gandhi protested against the Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
* Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Ghanshyam and Das Birla, C. Rajagopalachari and Dr. Ambedkar gathered at Pun and hammered out an agreement with the consent of Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar. This agreement came to be called as the ‘Poona Pact’ British Government also approved of it.
* 148 seats in different Provincial legislatiures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award. A Common electorate of all Hindu, including the Depressed Classes was agreed upon.
* Special provision for representation of the depressed people in local bodies and civil service were also made.
* The Third Round table conference was held from 17 November to 24 December 1932. The Congress once more did not take part in it.
* In March 1933, the British Government issued a White Paper, which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935.
* In July 1933, the Congress decided to launch an Individual Civil Disobedience in place of Mass Civil Disobedience.
* Under the Morely-Minto Reforms of 1909 only one percent , and under the Montague Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 two and half percent of Indian got voting rights, under the Government of India Act of 1935 only 13 percent of India’s population became eligible voters.
* In accordance with the provinces of the government of Indian Act of 1935 elections to the Provincial Legislatures were held in February 1937.
* Congress – virtually swept the polls – Muslim League – faced miserable defeat – out of the 482 Muslim seat it could register victory only in 81 seats.
* On 7 July 1937, after the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow assured the Congress of his cooperation the party formed its Ministery in 7 Provinces.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
* Congress Ministeries were formed in seven states of India. These states were the North West Frontier Province, the Central Provinces, Bombay, Bihar, Orissa, the United Provinces and Madras.In two provinces namely Sindh and Assam, ministries were formed with the Congress support whereas in Punjab the Unionist Party and the Muslim League formed the coalition ministry of Krishak Praja Party and the Muslim League came to power.
* Second World War broke out. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war. The Congress vehemently opposed it – also resigned from Ministries in all Provinces.
* Muslim League raised the slogan ‘Islam is in danger’. At this juncture, Jinnah also presented the ‘two-nation theory’ – inflamed communal feelings by saying that now Hindi would become the national language of India and Bande Mataram would be its national song.
* Pirpur Report and the Sharif Report also inflamed the communal passions.
* Muslim League celebrated 12 December 1939, the day on which the Congress Ministries from office as the ‘Deliverance Day’ – accepting two-nation theory in its annual session at Lahore – Jimait-ul-Ulema-e-Hind opposing the demand for Pakistan – Khudai Khidmatgar and the Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-hind too opposed the idea.
* On 8, August 1940 which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’- It said Indians would set up to frame the new Constitution. Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch individual Staygraha – limited symbolic and non-violent in nature – On 17, October 1940, Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment.
* Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahaist ; the third Satyagrahi was Brahma Dutt - continued for nearly 15 months –
British sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India on 23 March 1942.
* Cripps proposals included Dominion Status to India, protection of minorities and setting up of Constituent Assembly. The major political parities of the country rejected the Cripps proposals.
* The Muslim League was also dissatisfied as its demand for Pakistan had not been conceded – 26 April 1942, he asked the British to quit India.
* In July, the Congress Executive Committee passed the Quit India Resolution at Wardha. The All India Congress Committee further considered it at Bombay in its meeting on 7-8 August 1942. * Mahatma Gandhi was kept in prison a Poona.
* Working Committee of the Congress Socialist Party was in session, where it was decided to carry forward the movement from under ground. Among its prominent leaders who took this decision were Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta Patwardhan, Ramananda Mishra and S.M. Joshi.
* Quit India Movement had passed through four stages. The first stage was from 9 to 11 August 1942 when strikes, demonstrations and public meeting wee organized in various towns and cities.
* In its second stage from 12 August to 22 September the movement reached the rural areas. During this stage the Government adopted a policy of repression. Government structures, municipality buildings, railways stations, police stations, post offices and trains came under public ire.
* In the third stage from 23 September 1942 to February 1943 there were armed attacks on government buildings in Madras and Bengal. Bombs were thrown at many places in Bombay and the United Provinces
* February 1943 to 9 May 1944 was the fourth stage of the movement when Gandhi was released from jail. During this period, many demonstrations were held, processions taken out, anniversaries of national leaders celebrated and national weeks observed. Students’ peasants and workers took active part in it. The Muslims by and large, remained indifferent.
* Participation – lower middle class, political parities, Communists, Muslim league, Liberals opposed the movement, Savakar criticized the Government and directed his followers not to take part in the movement, and Anglo-Indian Community under the leadership of Anthony opposed the movement.
* Hindu Mahasabha established in 1915 on the occasion of the Kumbh Mela at Haridwar by Madan Mohan Malaviya.
* Lord Linlithgow described it most dangerous since the 1857 revolt.
* The Communist Party of India had come into being by 1925. The British government which declared the organization illegal in 1934. This ban continued in 1942.British Removed the ban on the Communist Party of India in July 1942 in return for the latter’s promise to extend full cooperation to the British in its war efforts.
* Subash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 at Cuttack in Orissa. He passed the Civil Services Examination in 1920 but not joined to serve the nationalist cause instead of serving the British Empire.
* Chittaranjan Das was instrumental in inspiring him top join the national freedom struggle – unanimously elected President of the Congress at its Haripura session.
* In May 1939, Subash Chandra Bose formed a new group which came to be called the Forward Bloc. July 1940 subhas was arrested under the Defence of India Rules. In the guise of a Pathan left the country on 16 February 1941 and reached Kabul along with his friend Bhagat Ram.
* He went to Germany and met Hilter. He was first addressed as Netaji in Germany. Indian National Army goes to Captain Mohan Singh, who set up the first division of the INA on 1 September 1942.
* On 2 July 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’.
* Formation of the Azad Hind Government and proclaimed ‘Give me blood and I will give you freedom’. He organized the Indian National Army and gave the country the slogan of ‘Jai Hind’.
* the name of the INA’s three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade, and Nehru Brigade – women’s detacgnebt after the name of Rani Laximibai – was recognized by Japan, Germany, Italy, China, Ireland, Burma (Brahma Desh) and Philippines.
* On 8 November 1943, Japan headed over Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Subhas Chandra. In turn, Nataji named these islands as ‘Shaheed Island’ and
‘Swaraj Island’ respectively. Germany accepted defeat on 7 May 1945. On 6 August 1945, atom bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
* After crossing the Formosa Island on his way to Tokyo died on 18 August 1945 as his plane suddenly caught fire. The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soliders.
* On 20 January 1946, some soliders of the Air force staged a hartal against the British Government in Karachi. The hartal soon spread to Bombay, Lahore and Delhi.
* About this time, on 19 February 1946, some Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy also ined mutiny. They also demanded equal treatment. The civilian population of Bombay also joined hands with them by striking work – due to the efforts of Sardar Patel, this agitation came to end.
* The British, with an aggravating war situation were expecting increased cooperation from the Indians. Thus, they began a process of diplomatic engagement with the Indian leaders by opening negotiations on contentious issues. The Wavell Plan, Shimla Conference and Cabinet Mission Plan were the results of these efforts.
* Lord Wavell came to India on October 1943, - barring Mahatma Gandhi’s release from prison on 6 May 1944, nothing spectacular happened.
* Rajapolachari evolved a formula in March 1944. But it was shooting down by Jinnah, who would not settle for anything less than a separate State.
* Lord Wavell also put forth on 14 June 1945, which came to be popularly known as the Wavell Plan.
* The Principal objectives behind the plan were to assuage the widespread public ire in India, obtain Indian cooperation against the surging military tide of Japan and build up public opinion for the conservative party in the forthcoming general elections in Britain.
* Wavell invited the prominent Leaders of all political parties in the country to a conference in Shimla on June 1945. Conference was held from 25 June to 14 July and was attended by 21 leaders.
* The conference began on a hopeful note but ultimately broke down due to the insistence of Jinnah that the Muslim League alone represents Indian Muslims and hence no non-League member could be nominated to the Viceroy’s Council.
* Clement Atlee took over as the Prime Minister and the Sir Pethick Lawrence was appointed as the new Secretary of State for India.
*Cripps Mission: On 15 March 1946, Lord Atlee’s government made a historic announcement in which the Indian’s right to self-determination and framing of a constitution were conceded. Three members of the British Cabinet – Pethick Lawrence Sir Stafford Cripps and A.B. Alexander were sent to India.
* Features – formation of union of India, Constituent Assembly, Interim Government. * On 6 June the Muslim League and on 25 June 1946 the Congress accepted the plan. Elections were held in July 1946 for the formation of a Constituent Assembly. The Congress secured 205 out of 214 General seats. They also had the support of 4 Sikh members.
* The Muslim League got 73 out of 79 Muslim seats. Jinnah became greatly disturbed by the elections results.
* End of July they resolved to withdraw its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and went on to pass the ‘Direct Action’ resolution. 16 August 1946 was fixed as the ‘Direct Action Day’ – communal riots broke out.
* On 13 October 1946, communal riots also broke out in Noakhali. Mahatma Gandhi reached Noakhali on 29 October. Interim government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on 2 September 1946.
* League joined the Interim Government on 26 October 1946, not to work it but to wreck it from within. Atlee decided to sent Lord Mountbatten as viceroy to India in place of Lord Wavell.
* Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India’s Viceroy on 24 March 1947. Put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947.
* Sardar Patel also felt that if the plan of India’s partition had not been accepted them. “We would not have had one Pakistan but several”.
* India would be divided in two parts, namely the Union Of India and Pakistan and both would be granted freedom on 15 August 1947 instead on June 1948. India Independence Act on 18 July 1947.
MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSITUTION AND LIBERATION OF GOA AND PONDICHERY
* Before Independence the number if native states in India was 562, which accounted for 48% of the country’s total area and 20% of its total population.
* In 1934 Dr. Rajendra Prasad proposed the introduction of responsible governments in the Princely states – Patel – with a hurricane tour of 40 days – to join the Indian Union by the 5th of August.
* Only Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir did not take a decision by the aforesaid date about their joining the Union.
* The ruler of Junagarh was a Muslim whereas most of its people were Hindus. In February 1948, through a referendum the people of this state decided to join India. The Nawab of Junagarh therefore left for Pakistan.
* Mahatma Gandhi also met the king of Kashmir, but in August 1947, the Pakistan in the guise of Qubailis began intruding into Jammu and Kashmir.
* On October 26, Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir sent his Prime Minister. Meharchand Mahajan, with the signed papers of merger to India, which were accepted.
* But in the meantime, on 21-22 October 1947, with the help of the Pathan Qubailis Pakistan invaded Kashmir and these intruders advanced up o Srinagar.
* Even today about a third of Kashmir territory remains illegally occupied by Pakistan which it calls as Azad Kashmir.
* Pakistan got a share of the country’s 40% of cotton production, 85% of jute production and 40% of wheat production whereas all the related mills and factories came under India’s share. This led to a shortage of raw materials in India which in turn led to shortage of food grains and textiles.
* In 1948, in the wake of announcing an economic policy, the first scheme known as the Sarvodaya scheme was presented by Jaiprasksah Narain.
* Chandernagore had acceded to India on the basis of a plebiscite.
* In 1946 the French Indian National congress and the French Indian Students Congress had been established with this objective. All these organization expressed their wish to liberate Pondicherry from French control and merge with the Indian Union.
* Within two years, all the five French enclaves came under Indian control though the legal transfer of territories took place only in 1962.
* The Portuguese had established their control over Goa, Diu and Daman since 1510, 1546 and 1559 respectively. Including Dara and Nagar Haveli this whole area used to be referred to as Goa.
* a Goa Liberation Army constituting all political parties was formed to liberate Goa. The Satyagraha of June 18, 1954 was particularly significant as several satyagrahis were arrested in it for unfurling the national flag.
* On 22 July, Dadra and Nagar Haveli came under the control of the liberators.
* In November 1961, the Portuguese injured crew members of the ship S.S.Sabarmati besides killing a fisherman. Ultimately the, Government of India announced operation ’Vijay’ for the liberation of Goa. This military operation was carried out under the command of general J.M. Choudhary on 17-18 December 1961 and was completed by 19 December. In this way, the Indian Army freed Goa, Daman and Diu.
ROBERT CLIVE 1757-60 AND 1765-67: Battle of Buxar- Siraj Ud doula- Dual Govt in Bengal- First Treaty of Allahbad in 1765 with Shuja ud Doula and second with Shah Alam II..First Governor of Bengal. Battle of Plassey was in 1764 and Governor was Pensitrat
Warren Hastings (1772-85) First Governor-General of Bengal.
The Act of 1781 (it made a clear demarcation between the jurisdiction of the Governor General-in-Council and that of then Supreme Court at Calcutta).
-Pitt’s India Act of 1784.--The Rohila war (1774) and annexation of Rohilkhand by the Nawab of Oudh with help of the British.---First Maratha war (1775-82) and the Treaty of Salbai (1782).--Second Mysore war (1780-84) (First one was fought in 1766-69).--Nand Kumar episode (1775) First English translation Gita by Charles Wilkins --Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Hastings and Sir William Jones (1784). After his return to England (1785), impeachment proceedings were started against him. After a prolonged trial (seven years), he was finally acquitted.
Lord Cornwalls (1786-93)
Third Mysore War (1790-92) and the Treaty of Seringapatam (1792).
Permanent revenue settlement.Reform of the judiciary- Creation OF district Judge (1793) – Code – Europeonisation of Civil Service.
Sir John Shore (1793-98)
In the introduction of the permanent settlement (1793) he played an important role as the President of the Board of Revenue, but his Governor-Generalship was very uneventful.
Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
Introduction of the system of Subsidiary Alliance (1798), and the first Subsidiary Treaty with the Nizam of Hyderabad (1798)-Fourth Mysore War (1799) and the annexation of many parts of Mysore.-Subsidiary Treaty of Bassein (1802) and Second Maratha War (1803-05).
Lord Minto I (1807-13)Before Minto, Sir George Barlow was the governor-general for two years (1805-07). Main event was the Vellore Mutiny (1806).
Treaty of Amritsar with Ramjit Singh (1809).--Charter Act of 1813
Lord Hastings (1813-23)
War with Nepal or the Gorkha War (1814-16); due to his success in this war, he was made Marquis of Hastings (1816).
Lord Amherst (1823-28)First Burmese War (1824-26)Capture of Bharatpur (1826)
Lord William Bentinck (1828-35)- First Governor General of India.
Prohibition of sati (1829).
Charles Metcafle 1835-36- Famous Press law and Liberator of Press in India
Lord Auckland (1835-42)
First Afghan War (1836-42) – disaster of the British in the war and recall of Auckland.-Death of Ranjit Singh (1839).
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44).
Termination of the first Afghan war (1842).
Lord Hardinge (1844-48)
First Sikh war (1845-46) and treaty of Lahore (1846)
Prohibition of female infanticide and suppression of the practice of human sacrifice among the Gonds of central India.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)
Second Sikh war (1848-49) and annexation of the Punjab.
Lord Canning (1856-57)
Establishment of three universities (at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay) in 1857.
Lord Canning (1858-62)-First Viceroy
Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and the India Act of 1858.
India Councils Act of 1861. Portfolio system. Withdrawl of Doctrine of Lapse
Lord Elgin I (1862)
His sudden death in 1862; administration carried on by Sir Napier and Sir Denison from 1862 to 1864.
Lord John Lawrence (1864-69)
War with Bhutan in 1865.
Establishment of the High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
Lord Mayo (1869-72)
Establishment of two colleges for the education and political training of the Indian Princes-the Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo college at Ajmer in Rajasthan.
Establishment of a Department of Agriculture and Commerce.Beginning of the system of State Railways.His assassination by a convict in the Andamans in 1872.
Lord North Brook (1872-76)
Visit of the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) to India in 1875.
Lord Lytton (1876-80)
Royal Titles Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title of ‘Empress of India’ by Queen Victoria; the Delhi-Durbar in January 1877.
Lord Ripon (1880-84)
First Factory Act of 1881.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88)Third Burmese war (1885-86)Foundation of the Indian National Congress (Lord Cross was the Secretary of State at that time).
Lord Lansdowne (1888-94)
Second Factory Act of 1891.
Lord Elgin II (1894-99)
Assassination of two British officials by the Chapekar brothers of Poona in 1897.
Appointment of a commission under Sir Thomas Raleigh in 1902 to suggest reforms regarding universities, and the passing of the Indian Universities Act of 1904 on the basis of its recommendations.
· Ancient Monuments Preservation Act of 1904.
· Establishment of an Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa in Delhi.
· Partition of Bengal in 1905.
· Col.Younghusband’s Expedition to Tibet in 1904. I.S.T.
Lord Minto II (1905-10)
Anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movements.
Lord Hardinge II (1910-16)
Annulment of the partition of Bengal and creation of a Governorship for Bengal like Bombay and Madras in 1911. (Lieutenant Governorship for Bihar and Orissa, and Chief Commissionership for Assam).
Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
Foundation of two Home Rule League – one by Tilak in April, 1916 and another by Mrs. Annie Besant in September, 1916.
Lord Reading (1921-26)
Chauri Chaura incident (February 5, 1922) and the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation Movement by Gandhi.
Lord Irwin (1926-31)(Popularly known as the ‘Christian Viceroy’)
Appointment of the Simon Commission (Nov. 1927) and the boycott of the Commission by the Congress.
Lord Wellingdon (1931-36) Participation of Gandhi in the second session of the Round Table Conference (Sep. 1931) and the failure of the conference, return of Gandhi to India (Dec.1931) and resumption of the movement, Gandhi’s imprisonment, final suspension of the movement in May, 1934.
Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
Formation of Congress Ministries in majority of the provinces (1937).
Resignation of Subhas Chandra Bose from the Presidentship of the Congress as well as from its membership in 1939, formation of the Forward Block by Bose and his followers (1939).
Resignation of the Congress Ministries after the out break of the World War II (1939).
Celebration of the Congress Ministries’ resignation as ‘Deliverance Day’ by the Muslim League (1939), and its Lahore Resolution (23rd March, 1940), demanding separate state for the Muslims. (It was at this session that Jinnah propounded his Two-Nation Theory).
August Offer’ by Linlithgow (1940); its rejection by the Congress and the starting of individual satyagraha by Gandhi.
Escape of S.C. Bose from India in 1941.
Cripps Mission (March, 1942) offering Dominion Status to India, and its rejection by the Congress.
Passing of the ‘Quit India’ Resolution by the Congress at Bombay (8th August, 1942), arrest of all the Congress leaders and the outbreak of the ‘August Revolution’ or Revolt of 1942.
Lord Wavell (1943-47)
C.R.Formula evolved by C.Rajagopala Chari in 1944 and the Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944) based on it: failure of the talks.Famine in Bengal
-Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference (1945) to discuss it; its failure.
-INA Trials and the Naval Mutiny (1946).
-Cabinet Mission (Three members-Lawrence, Cripps and Alexander) and acceptance of its plan by both the Congress and the League (1946)
-Formation of Interim Government by the Congress (Sep. 1946).
-Launching of ‘Direct Action Day’ by the League (17th Aug. 1946) but it also joined the Interim Govt. in Oct. 1946, though it abstained from the Constituent Assembly.
Lord Mountbatten (March-August, 1947) Mountbatten plan; partition of India and achievement of freedom. Also First governor General of Free India –Gandhi murder-Kashmir annexation
C.Rajajai :Second and Last GG of Independent India-
CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT POINTS
1.Regulating Act – Governor General of Bengal – SC at Calcutta – Executive Council with 4 members – Dual Government abolished
2. Pitts India Act – Board of Control – E.C. 4 to 3 – Bombay and Madras subordinate to Bengal
3.1793 Charter Act –Trade Monopoly extended for 20 years – Local Government – Higher Post for Europeans
4. Charter Act 1813 – Monopoly ended – China Opium and Tea for 20 years – Education Advance – Christian Missionary to India
5. Charter Act 1833 – Governor General of India – Law Member Macaulay – Trade Monopoly in China Ended– Governor General can frame Law – Patronage system abolished
6. Charter Act 1853 – Lt. Governor for Bengal – Competitive Exam – Legislative Council with 12 members
7. Government of India Act 1858 – Power Transfer-Secretary of State – India Council - - Home Government – Viceroy – abolition of the Board of Control and Court of Directors
8. Indian Councils Act 1861 – Portfolio System, Legislative Councils in Madras, Bombay and Bengal – Rigid Centralisation – Ordinance making Power of GG
9. Indian Councils Act 1892 – Indirect Election- Budget Discussion, Question - no voting
10.Minto Morley Reforms 1909 – Direct Elections – Separate electorate for Muslims
11. GOI Act 1919 – Dyarchy in Provinces – Central bicameral – two lists – towards responsible Government – Local Govt – UPSC – High Commissioner of India
12. Government of India Act 1935 – Provincial Autonomy – Dyarchy – Abolition in Province – introduced at Centre – Three lists – Indian Council abolished – communal representation extended – Federal Court